- to get the C terminal end of the protein on the cytoplasmic side?

These proteins may be destined for ER, another organelle, or the plasma membrane.

This processrequires the use of (membrane proteins).

Under normal physiological conditions, the main role of insulin on the heart is the regulation of substrate utilization. Insulin regulates cardiac metabolism by modulating glucose and fatty acid transport, glycolysis, glycogen synthesis, lipid metabolism, protein synthesis, growth, contractility, and apoptosis in the cardiomyocytes (5). The actions of insulin are mediated by binding to specific cell surface receptors (insulin receptor, InsR). Each cardiomyocyte is expressed at levels of about 10,000 to 100,000 receptors of InsR. The InsR is a tetrameric enzyme comprising two extracellular a-subunits and two transmembrane P-subunits (5). The binding of insulin to the extracellular domain of InsR triggers the activation of intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of the P-subunits of the receptor. This leads to an autotransphosphorylation of the receptor where one P-subunit phosphorylates the other on several tyrosine residues. Once activated and phosphorylated, InsR binds via its phosphotyrosine residues and phosphorylates a series of downstream elements, including the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family and Shc (5, 50). This recruitment and activation lead to the activation of two main pathways, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway respectively. PI3K is considered to be the main player of the metabolic action of insulin, whereas the MAPK pathway is principally involved in cell growth and differentiation in the heart (Fig.2) (50, 51).

T1 - Stimulation of Myoblast Membrane Protein Synthesis by 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3

plasma cell membraneglycoprotein-1

Herth W (1985) Plasma‐membrane rosettes involved in localized wall thickening during xylem vessel formation of Lepidium sativum L. Planta 164: 12–21.

The proteins move through the endomembrane system and are dispatched from the trans face of the Golgi apparatus in transport vesicles that move through the cytoplasm and then fuse with the plasma membrane releasing the protein to the outside of the cell.

what role do cell membranes play in protein synthesis …

The latter proteins are inserted into the lumen of the RER, carbohydrates are added to them to produce glycoproteins, and they are then moved to cis face of the Golgi apparatus in transport vesicles that bud from the ER membrane.

The protein in the plasma membrane was actually ..

For example, while many proteins are made on ribosomes that are free in the cytoplasm and remain in the cytoplasm, other proteins are made on ribosomes bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER).

binds to a specific plasma membrane protein ..

Mueller SC and Brown RM Jr (1980) Evidence for an intramembrane component associated with a cellulose microfibril‐synthesizing complex in higher plants. Journal of Cell Biology 84: 315–326.

What Is the Role of DNA in Protein Synthesis

Gutierrez R, Lindeboom JJ, Paredez AR, Emons AM and Ehrhardt DW (2009) Arabidopsis cortical microtubules position cellulose synthase delivery to the plasma membrane and interact with cellulose synthase trafficking compartments. Nature Cell Biology 11: 797–806.

What is the role of DNA in protein synthesis? - Quora

The stroma contains the chloroplast DNA as well as components of the protein synthesizing machinery specific for the chloroplast, namely the ribosomes, tRNAs, and specific proteins and enzymes.


The endomembrane system plays a very important role in moving materials around the cell, notably proteins and membranes (the latter is called membrane trafficking).