Plant Development-Introduction - Plant Cell Biology …

CSIRO PUBLISHING | Functional Plant Biology

Ethylene - Plant Cell Biology For Masters- by G. R. …

Plant cell walls are composed of complex carbohydrates, proteins, phenolic compounds, and inorganic ions, all of which play functional roles. Cellulose (1,4-beta-glucan) and callose (1,3-beta-glucan) are synthesized in the plasma membrane, while other polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi. Plant cell growth occurs with the loosening of the walls, which may be caused by several enzymatic actions. Plant development is related to the morphological changes of cells and tissue, which is caused by structural changes of the walls.

This remarkable collection presents the latest understanding of plant cell walls and cellulose synthesis from some of the world's best and most promising researchers. The book is divided into eight sections describing: Cell Wall Structure, Biosynthesis, Cell Walls in Development, Wall Assembly and Loosening, Cell Wall Genomics, Proteomics and Glycomics, Woody Wall Formation, Defense, and Biotechnologies. Each section contains several essays describing the topic and how it is important to a better understanding of plant biosynthesis. While the authors rely heavily on general models for understanding how the process works, the hope is to enhance "our understanding and ultimate improvement of crops such as cotton, trees, and major cereal or legume crops" writes Deborah Delmer, the author of the book's preface. While her interests have evolved to more practical applications of this research, she agrees that "hard work involving good, serious biochemistry will still be important to provide a final confirmation of the structure of the rosette, the function of each CESA within the rosette, and the role of other accessory proteins." She suggests that "one prediction is that work with enzymes like sucrose synthase may provide new insights into how carbon is partitioned in plant cells." This book is an excellent introduction to the plant cell wall for biochemists trained in this field and those interested in the practical questions that a better understanding of these processes will answer.

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OBJECTIVES: The goal of the proposed research is to 1) identify proteins that regulate biosynthetic enzymes and pathway modules of the cell wall and 2) generate a regulatory network model that enable us to manipulate whole pathways by transgenic expression of these key regulators.

Background The secondary cell wall is a defining feature of xylem cells and allows them to resist both gravitational forces and the tension forces associated with the transpirational pull on their internal columns of water. Secondary walls also constitute the majority of plant biomass. Formation of secondary walls requires co-ordinated transcriptional regulation of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. This co-ordinated control appears to involve a multifaceted and multilayered transcriptional regulatory programme. Scope Transcription factor MYB46 (At5g12870) has been shown to function as a master regulator in secondary wall formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies show that MYB46 not only regulates the transcription factors but also the biosynthesis genes for all of the three major components (i.e. cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of secondary walls. This review considers our current understanding of the MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulatory network, including upstream regulators, downstream targets and negative regulators of MYB46. Conclusions and Outlook MYB46 is a unique transcription factor in that it directly regulates the biosynthesis genes for all of the three major components of the secondary wall as well as the transcription factors in the biosynthesis pathway. As such, MYB46 may offer a useful means for pathway-specific manipulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. However, realization of this potential requires additional information on the 'MYB46-mediated transcriptional regulatory programme', such as downstream direct targets, upstream regulators and interacting partners of MYB46.

Poales - Missouri Botanical Garden

N2 - Plant cell walls consist of polysaccharides, glycoproteins and phenolic polymers interlinked together in a highly complex network. The detailed analysis of cell walls is challenging because of their inherent complexity and heterogeneity. Also, complex carbohydrates, unlike proteins and nucleotides cannot really be synthesised or sequenced. The work described in this thesis is focused to a large extent on the development of a microarray-based high-throughput method for cell wall analysis known as Comprehensive microarray polymer profiling or CoMPP. The procedure uses highly specific molecular probes (monoclonal antibodies mAbs and carbohydrate binding modules, CBMs) to rapidly profile polysaccharides across a sample set. During my PhD I have further developed the CoMPP technique and used it for cell wall analysis within the context of a variety of applied and fundamental projects. The data produced has provided new insight into cell wall evolution and biosynthesis and has contributed to the commercial development of cell wall materials. A major focus of the work has been the wide scale sampling of cell wall diversity across the plant kingdom, from unicellular algae to highly evolved angiosperms. This analysis has enabled cell wall diversity to be placed in a phylogenetic context, and, when integrated with transcriptomic and genomic analysis has contributed to our understanding of important aspects of plant evolution.

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WallBioNet is a Research Coordination Network supported by the US National Science Foundation. The goal of WallBioNet is to encourage interactions among scientists attempting to understand the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. For more information about WallBioNet, click the tab labeled "About".