Vascular plants include the clubmosses, horsetails, ferns, ..

In mosses, liverworts, and vascular plants, that job is performed by diploid sporophyte tissue.

showing a grade with Hornworts as sister to vascular plants (e.g

The CO concentrates around the enzyme RuBisCo and photosynthesis via the Calvin cycle results.Day Malic acid --> Malate decarboxylated --> PEP + CO (for Calvin cycle)In the late afternoon the stomata open and this day/night cycle repeats.The water efficiency of this process is demonstrated by the fact that C3 plants lose 97% of their water by transpiration whereas CAM plants loose little to none.

Non-Vascular Plants - Definition and Characteristics

Malate is produced which synthesises malic acid to be stored in the cell’s vacuole over-night (remember it is dark and no photosynthesis can occur without sunlight).Night CO --> HCO (with PEPC) --> Malate --> Malic acid (in vacuole)At dawn the stomata close, the malic acid moves from the vacuoles, is converted to malate and decarboxylated in the chloroplasts into CO and PEP.

Often the benefit of continued metabolism (survival) is at the expense of quantum yield (growth).
Plants which can switch photosynthetic pathways between CAM and C3 depend on environmental factors for the switch e.g.


Quia - Quiz #9 Plants: Photosynthesis and Vascular Tissue

For those seeking a more detailed and less simplified explanation / introduction to photosynthesis, these same references can be used.

This is the second talk by Don in a series of three.

sunlight by plants doing photosynthesis is the basis of life on ..

In a C3 plant where the first product of photosynthesis is a molecule with three Carbon (C) atoms, RuBisCo acts alone.Slightly up the evolutionary ladder are plants where the first product of the photosynthetic process is a molecule with four C atoms and where RuBisCo does not act alone.

Characteristics of Vascular Plants | Sciencing

However some stages of photosynthesis are still not fully understood.If the carbon dioxide level is too low, oxygen will replace it and carbon will be lost from the cycle, sugars drained, toxins produced, and photosynthesis inhibited.

Chapter 36 - Transport in Vascular Plants | CourseNotes

This is a distinctly different pathway to that followed by C4 and CAM plants.The basic process for photosynthesis was understood early in the 18th century.

Chapter 36 - Transport in Vascular Plants

Sugars created in photosynthesis can be later converted by the plant to starch for storage, or it can be combined with other sugar molecules to form specialized carbohydrates such as , or it can be combined with other nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur, to build complex molecules such as and .

Chapter 36 Transport in Vascular Plants ..

They fit in this division because they reproduce using spores not seeds.
Non-flowering Seed Bearing Vascular Plant
Conifers is a non-flowering seed bearing vascular plant because it produces seeds but does not grow flowers.