Example IB Biology IA | Germination | Seed

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What would be a good topic for my biology IA? - …

A limiting factor is a factor that controls a process. Light intensity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration are all factors which can control the rate of photosynthesis. Usually, only one of these factors will be the limiting factor in a plant at a certain time. This is the factor which is the furthest from its optimum level at a particular point in time. If we change the limiting factor the rate of photosynthesis will change but changes to the other factors will have no effect on the rate. If the levels of the limiting factor increase so that this factor is no longer the furthest from its optimum level, the limiting factor will change to the factor which is at that point in time, the furthest from its optimum level. For example, at night the limiting factor is likely to be the light intensity as this will be the furthest from its optimum level. During the day, the limiting factor is likely to switch to the temperature or the carbon dioxide concentration as the light intensity increases.

IB Biology HL IA ideas? • r/IBO - reddit

On the Parts of Animals, book I (PA I) begins byoutlining its purpose, which is to establish a set of standards forjudging natural investigations (639a15). Its five chapters pursue thispurpose, discussing the appropriate level of generality for suchstudies, the modes of causality and of necessity to be used inbiological explanations, the relation of form to matter in livingthings, the proper method of division for this subject matter, themeans of identifying kinds and their activities at the proper level ofabstraction, and much more. Two sorts of evidence support theconclusion that this book is intended to deal with problems andquestions that arise in the application of the general philosophy ofscience found in the Posterior Analytics to the theoreticalinvestigation of living nature.

First some preliminary remarks are in order about what weare—and are not—discussing. It seems obvious, once stated,that the actual activity of studying animals is different from theactivity of writing or teaching about animals based on that study. Wehave access to a number of Aristotle’s systematically organizedwritings on animals; we do not have direct access to hisactual investigations. Some authors in the history of science discuss,in their written work, the methods they used to gather the informationand work out their theoretical ideas and even provide‘diaries’ describing their day-to-daystudies—Aristotle is not one of them. Nor did anyone else reportobserving Aristotle carrying out his studies. There are reasonableinferences we can make from his writings, for example that heconsulted with bee-keepers, fishermen and sponge divers, that heperformed a great many dissections on a wide variety of animals, thatthere were at least some diagrams based on these dissections, and soon. Moreover, on the question of how he reasoned to specificexplanations we can make some reasonable inferences from things hesays about proper methods of biological inquiry. But it is importantto keep in mind that we are studying texts that present, in a highlystructured and theoretical manner, the results of an actualinvestigation, the details of which we know very little.


IB Biology notes on 3.8 Photosynthesis ..

The light-independant reactions of photosynthesis occur in the stroma of the chloroplast and involve the conversion of carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. The light-independent reactions can be split into three stages, these are carbon fixation, the reduction reactions and finally the regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate. Collectively these stages are known as the Calvin Cycle.

The Process of Photosynthesis in Plants: An Overview

Aristotle was able to accomplish what he did in biology because he hadgiven a great deal of thought to the nature of scientific inquiry. Howdoes one progress from the superficial and unorganized state ofeveryday experience toward organized scientific understanding? Toanswer this question, you need a concept of the goal to be achieved,and Aristotle developed such a concept in his Prior andPosterior Analytics (henceforth abbreviated as APr.and APo., respectively). The goal of inquiry, he argued, wasa system of concepts and propositions organized hierarchically,ultimately resting on knowledge of the essential natures of theobjects of study and certain other necessary first principles. Thesedefinitions and principles form the basis of causal explanations ofall the other universal truths within the domain of study. Those otheruniversal truths should identify attributes belonging to a subjectper se, in virtue of that subject’s nature. The examplehe uses when he introduces his account of demonstration to illustratesuch propositions is from geometry: having interior angles equal totwo right angles belongs to all and only triangles in virtue of theirbeing triangles (APo. I 4, 5). This attribute belongs to allequilateral triangles as well—not, however, becausethey are equilateral, but because they are triangles. Thus ascientific understanding of such a proposition, an understanding thatdisplays the reason why any triangle has this property, must explainwhy this property belongs to triangles as such. Theexplanation, of course, will appeal to the essential character ofthree-sided rectilinear plane figures, i.e. to what it is to be atriangle.

Internal Assessment - IB Biology

A second limitation of division is its indifference to the distinctionbetween causally fundamental characteristics and proper attributes, touse the language of the Analytics. Yet, being able todistinguish these is absolutely fundamental to Aristotelian science. Acareful comparative study of the History of Animals, on theone hand, and works such as On the Parts or On theGeneration of Animals, on the other, provides insight into howAristotle understands and deploys this distinction in his actualscientific practice. And as we have seen above, Aristotle drawsexplicit attention to its importance for his biological investigationsin a number of key texts within those investigations themselves. Tostudy in detail the interplay between definition, causal demonstrationand division in the biology is to see Aristotle working through justthose problems which form the central question of PosteriorAnalytics II—how precisely are definition, causaldemonstration and division related to one another in the quest for,and achievement of, scientific understanding?