nucleic acids & protein synthesis notes b1 - Biology …

Overall, the nucleus is responsible for protein synthesis, cell growth, division, and development.


Comprising two primary parts (transcription and translation), the process of protein synthesis involves ribonucleic acids (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), enzymes, and ribosomes.

The stepwise procedure of protein synthesis is also known as 'central dogma' in molecular biology.

The protein synthesis process, ..

The genetic material making up genes is composed of deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). DNA has several properties that enable it to function as genetic material; it is able to (1) direct the synthesis of copies of itself (replicate itself), (2) store information that directs protein synthesis, and (3) direct the synthesis of structural and regulatory proteins. DNA is composed of nucleic acids. Therefore, appreciation of the structure of nucleic acids and DNA, and the process of protein synthesis are essential prerequisites to the understanding of control of cellular activity, drug action, and various disease processes.

Kinds of Cell - Prokaryotes& Eukaryotes; Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Animals, and PlantsB.

DNA transcription is the process of making a single strand complementary RNA copy of DNA. Data is copied from the DNA to the RNA with the aid of the enzyme RNA polymerase. Using this process, the genetic information stored in the DNA is carried in the form of RNA to other parts of the cell. In eukaryotic cells a gene begins with a promoter region and an initiation code and ends with a termination code. However, the intervening gene sequence contains patches of nucleotides that have no meaning. If they were used in protein synthesis, the resulting proteins would be worthless. Eukaryotic cells prune these segments from the mRNA after transcription. RNA polmerase synthesizes a strand of pre-mRNA that initially includes copies of the meaningful mRNA coding sequences (exons) and the meaningless mRNA coding sequences (introns). Soon after its manufacture, this pre-mRNA molecule has the meaningless introns clipped out and the exons spliced together in the final version of mature mRNA

The nucleolus and ribosomes form part of the proteinsynthesizing machinery of the cell

Translation: Making Protein Synthesis Possible

After translation, the protein passes into the channels of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for transportation. The protein is then passed from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus inside tiny fluid-filled sacs, called vesicles. The Golgi apparatus is a system of , which are responsible for the modification, processing, and packaging of the proteins. The protein may have a carbohydrate added, to form a glycoprotein. The Golgi apparatus packages the protein in a secretory vesicle, which fuses with the cell membrane and releases the protein from the cell.

What is Protein Synthesis? (with pictures) - wiseGEEK

Also, the types of amino acids play a crucial role in determining the expression of genes in this process.

Protein synthesis is a biological procedure performed by living cells to manufacture proteins in a step-by-step manner.

29/11/2017 · Protein synthesis is the process by ..

All types of ribonucleic acids, namely messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA), and transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) are required for protein synthesis.

It is the first part in the process of protein synthesis.

In the next phase of protein synthesis, ..

Protein Synthesis is a Maxis-made adventure. It isn't included with and must be downloaded from . This educational adventure teaches the basics about the DNA transcription and translation.

and serves as a template for protein synthesis.

The newly transcribed mRNA is released by the polymerase enzyme, which then migrates to the cytoplasm to complete the process of protein synthesis.

It is the second part in the process of synthesis of proteins.