Molecular Structures Prokaryotes Eukaryotes | Answers …
Signals from the environment must also be interpreted.
Many cells will also do the following :
Reproduce: The information that runs the cell must be passed on to new generations of cells.
Communicate: Cells respond to/direct other cells.
Cells have systems to do all of these things!
2 Major Points
The Endomembrane System
Proteins are the molecules that a cell uses to do most of its work.
Here is a brief list of things that proteins do:
Carry out chemical reactions
Copy DNA & RNA
Receive and send messages to the environment/other cells
Receive and send messages to other cells
We have previously discussed protein structure.
The instructions to build proteins are stored in DNA (we can call them "
An overview of eukaryotic protein synthesis
Structure: a double membrane, with protein pore channels
Function: site of DNA storage and replication, information relay to ribosomes
flourescence image showing nuclei (yellow)
Structure: a complex of RNA and protein.
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This Concept Map, created with IHMC CmapTools, has information related to: Answers_eukaryotic cell, tubulin microtubules, actin microfilaments, polypeptide intermediate filaments functions give shape to cells lacking a cell wall, cytoskeleton consists of tubulin microtubules, actin microfilaments, polypeptide intermediate filaments, cell wall lack a cell wall protozoa, animal cells, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles vacuoles and vesicles, active transport examples endocytosis and exocytosis, chloroplasts description surrounded by two membranes; inner membrane forms interconnected stacks of disk-like sacs called thylakoids, contains paired, linear chromosomes, has a nuclear membrane, has nucleoli function the genetic material of the cell composed of genes that code for protein synthesis, the endomembrane system components nucleus, determines what goes in and out of the bacterium powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy facilitated diffusion, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles the endomembrane system, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles proteasomes, ribosomes function workbench for protein synthesis, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles ribosomes, determines what goes in and out of the bacterium powered by a concentration gradient; does not require metabolic energy passive diffusion, Golgi complex description 3-20 flattened and stacked sac-like structures, cell wall have a cell wall algae, plants cells, fungi, long; few in number function motility, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) description parallel membranous tubules and flattened sacs surrounding the nucleus and runs throughout the cytoplasm, Eukaryotic Cell structures and organelles flagella, algae, plants cells, fungi function resists osmotic lysis
I will try to base my research on the origin of mitochondria based on a model that sees evolution as an expanding system of functional modules that communicate through strictly defined interfaces. In such a system that grows by functional extensions, existing interfaces cannot be changed anymore because of the dependencies of downstream functions on this interface. By analyzing the functional modules, their conserved interfaces and its dependants, it then becomes possible to determine the logical sequence of events that occurred in evolution. I will look specifically to genetic control, protein import mechanisms, metabolic function and its relation with the cell cycle. I believe that these subsystems that are involved in the origin of mitochondria point to a eukaryotic origin as a functional extension of the endomembrane system.
Chapter 4: Biology Multiple Choice Flashcards | Quizlet
I will incorporate the evolution of the subsystems in a complete gradual scenario for the origin of mitochondria. I will focus on the gradual specialization of the endomembrane system leading to increasingly complex organelles. Diversification of an existing protein targeting to the ER, could lead to specialized ER-derived compartments such as mitosomes and hydrogenosomes and in a seperate line from the ER, the mitochondria. The specific extra functionality that is gained in each step will be related to metabolic activity based on core functionality of an ATP synthase driven by a proton gradient. The presence of introns in some genes suggest an origin from the nuclear genome, although lateral gene transfer using a plasmid or viral vector cannot be excluded. All the intermediates can be found in the organelles of amitochondriate organisms and in mitochondrial genomes without (e.g. Cryptosporidium) or with a very small genome (e.g. Amphidinium).