Microbial Hyaluronic Acid Biosynthesis.

(2005) Microbial hyaluronic acid production

Microbial production of hyaluronic acid from …

Industrial production was first started in 1970 and hyaluronic acid was recognized to be used in the intraocular lens implantation []. Initially the production started with rooster comb as a source, but due to lack of global market and high production cost, the process was shut down. Later, healon was introduced by Pharmacia Company, which got approval by the WHO for eye surgeries. Based on certain reasons, like applications, starting material, methodology and global market many companies were established. Thus, after studying these factors and global requirement, we came to a conclusion that, there is space for best production method and this can be done only by decreasing the production cost and increasing the production [].

Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid.

Microbial hyaluronic acid production

4. Cosmetics: Hyaluronic acid is used for its antiaging property in many antiaging cosmetics available in the market. The concentration of hyaluronic acid declines with increase in age and the metabolic pathways of the hyaluronic acid also alters, which ultimately brings the changes in skin. Lower molecular weight hyaluronic acid is synthesized which penetrates easily through the skin and restores the concentration of hyaluronic acid. It forms a viscoelastic layer on the skin and prevents the external foreign particles penetration and maintains the moisture content of the skin. This is the reason why cost of hyaluronic acid is far higher than the other microbial extracellular polysaccharides.

Microbial production of hyaluronic acid from agricultural resource derivatives

Hyaluronic acid is used as additives and it is a dietary supplement which reduces the accumulation of fluid and decrease inflammation in the joints and connective tissues of the body. [,].

Biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid.

Biosynthesis of Hyaluronic acid in ..

In the recent years, hyaluronic acid has become the buzzword in youth, and people seeking for antiaging effect, healing and pain relief. It can be used as targeted drug delivery unit, nano medicine, viscosurgical implants and hydrogels and so on. Some of the important applications of hyaluronic acid have been discussed below.

Hyaluronic Acid/biosynthesis; Rats;

In medical, hyaluronic acid is used as intra-articular injection to treat early osteoarthritis of the knee []. In eye surgical operation, the ball liquid medicine is does with hyaluronic acid supports the stickiness of liquid which reduces the risk in ophthalmology surgeries. In veterinary department, hyaluronic acid injections are used for treating horses in racing and other animal common osseous arthritis. Hyaluronic acid accelerates the wound healing and in joints it helps in lubrication and cushioning [].

Microbial production of hyaluronic acid from ..

1. Ophthalmology: Hyaluronic acid is used to comfort the eye during visual examination, ocular surgery, and cataract extraction, anterior posterior segment surgeries of the eye, lens implantation, vitreous retinal surgery because of its protective nature towards the exposed tissue, such as corneal endothelium. It is an important mediator in the reconstruction of the surgery area.

hyaluronic acid biosynthesis, ..

2. Osteoarthritis: Numerous investigations elaborate the efficacy and safety of hyaluronic acid in treatment of arthritic problems of the knee and other joints. Hyaluronic acid injection by Intra articular administration regains the viscoelasticity of the synovial fluid inhibits its degradation and increases the concentration of endogenous hyaluronic acid relieving from pain.

High-titer biosynthesis of hyaluronic acid by …

3. Healing power: Hyaluronic acid plays a prominent role in the various biological processes that are central for wound healing. Wound healing is a chain of biological processes like, inflammation, formation of granular tissue, formation of the damaged epithelium and its remodeling. It acts as mediator in whole of these processes and that is the reason why hyaluronic acid is used for healing of wounds like abrasions, post-operative scars, second and third degree burns, pressure sores and external skin injuries.