Wavelength= the distance between crests of the wave

TV waves are very long wavelengths - Infra-red (IR) (appear black) b.

Ultraviolet (looks black) - X-rays wavelengths are very short c.

3.8.6 Explain that the rate of photosynthesis can be measured directly by the production of oxygen or uptake of carbon dioxide, or indirectly by an increase in biomass
-The rate of photosynthesis can be measured by changes in the amounts of inputs (CO2) or outputs (O2 or glucose) of the photosynthesis equation
-Water cannot be measured as it is involved in a number of essential processes besides photosynthesis (e.g. condensation and hydrolysis reactions) Measuring CO2 Uptake
-CO2 uptake can be measured by placing plant in an enclosed space with water containing hydrogen carbonate to provide CO2
-Carbon dioxide interacts with the water molecules, producing bicarbonate and hydrogen ions, which increases the acidity of the resulting solution
-The change in pH can therefore provide a measure of CO2 uptake by a plant (increased CO2 uptake = more alkaline pH)
-Layer of oil on surface can prevent CO2 in air from dissolving in the water Measuring O2 Production
-O2 production can be measured by submerging a plant in an enclosed space with water attached to a sealed gas syringe
-Any oxygen gas produced will bubble out of solution, thus O2 production can also be measured by a change in water level (via the position of the meniscus) Measuring Biomass (Indirect)
-Glucose production can be indirectly measured by a change in a plant's biomass (weight)
-This requires the plant to be completely dehydrated prior to weighing to ensure the change in biomass reflects a change in organic matter and not water content
-An alternative method for measuring glucose production is to determine the change in starch levels in a plant (glucose is stored as starch)
-Starch can be identified via iodine staining (resulting solution turns purple) and quantitated using a colorimeter

- a quantum of light; a unit of light energy 2.

In both SACs and the exam, you will often be presented with unfamiliar contexts where you need to apply core Unit 4 concepts. We’ll be covering many examples and applications to help you truly grasp these essentials, and slip in a few exam tips along the way, straight from our own experiences in the examination hall.

Connect Notes are crafted with care and attention to detail. But more importantly, they include all the things you need to know for great results. With every set of notes, learn how top students achieved top study scores in your subject. And how you can do the same.


example - in photosynthesis, chlorophyll & B.

3.8.4 Outline the differences in absorption between red, blue and green light by chlorophyll
-absorbs most at the red and blue ends of spectrum
-reflects most of green part of spectrum

Similar to absorption spectrum but not identical IV.

Photosynthesis is a process by which plants (and some bacteria, and some protistans) use the sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.

Green plants, algae (seaweeds), bacteria 2.

With a content-heavy subject like VCE Biology, it’s important to cover all bases. It’s also important to learn how content is assessed. That’s why Connect’s VCE Biology SuperClass offers comprehensive coverage of all things Unit 4, and more.

High energy compounds involved in light reaction b.

See chloroplasts in an algal (Zygnema), x.s.
D. Two stages of photosynthesis
1. Light reactions (light dependent reactions) - in grana of chloroplasts
a. High energy compounds involved in light reaction

OVERALL - using CO2 to make carbohydrate (sugar) b.


Photosynthesis :
Photosynthesis is an enzyme regulated anabolic processof manufacture of organic compounds inside the chlorophyll containing cellsfrom carbon dioxide and water with the help of sunlight as a source of energy.

Requires energy of ATP and NADPH (from light reactions) c.

The original file is a 'Word (Docx)' whilst this sample is a 'PDF' representation of said file. This means that the formatting here may have errors. The original document you'll receive on purchase should have more polished formatting.