Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

De novo synthesis the formation of an essential molecule from simple precursor molecules

Bile Acid Synthesis, Metabolism and Biological Functions

The expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the synthesis of cholesterol (HMG-CoA reductase) and uptake of cholesterol (LDL receptor) is regulated by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP).

Synopsis of lipoprotein synthesis and its effects on LDL level Synopsis of lipoprotein synthesis and its effects on LDL level Synopsis of lipoprotein synth

Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization

A combination of factors and mechanisms appears to contribute to the cholesterol lowering action of barley. Soluble fiber is suggested to reduce cholesterol by increased excretion of bile acids or neutral sterols, increased catabolism of LDL cholesterol, and reduced absorption of fat. Soluble fibers were shown to be fermented in the colon and thus to give rise to short-chain fatty acids that can be absorbed and may inhibit hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In addition to the soluble fiber, barley contains a wide range of phytochemicals, some of which are being investigated for their effect on metabolism.

Dr. Ernst Schaefer and colleagues documented that statins decrease absolute and relative levels of lathosterol, a marker of cholesterol synthesis, while increasing absolute and relative markers of cholesterol absorption, namely beta-sitosterol and campesterol. Moreover the researchers confirmed findings by other groups that changes in these parameters predicted statin induced LDL-C lowering response.4


Cholesterol HDL LDL ratio information and the new findings.

Parhami F, Mody N, Gharavi N, Ballard AJ,Tintut Y and Demer LL: Role of cholesterol biosynthetic pathway inosteoblastic differentiation of marrow stromal cells. J Miner Res.17:1997–2003. 2002. :