Lancet hypothesis – igkintidymamacomvoreanocla

Muller's ratchet hypothesis - The Lancet

CiteSeerX — THE LANCET Hypothesis Syndrome

The transformation of groups of previously nonviolent individuals into repetitive killers of defenceless members of society has been a recurring phenomenon throughout history. This transformation is characterised by a set of symptoms and signs suggesting a common syndrome—Syndrome E. Affected individuals show obsessive ideation, compulsive repetition, rapid desensitisation to violence, diminished affective reactivity, hyperarousal, environmental dependency, group contagion, and failure to adapt to changing stimulus-reinforcement associations. Yet memory, language, planning, and problem-solving skills remain intact. The main risk factors are male sex and age between 15 and 50. A pathophysiological model—“cognitive fracture”—is hypothesised, where hyperaroused orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices tonically inhibit the amygdala and are no longer regulated by visceral and somatic homoeostatic controls ordinarily supplied by subcortical systems. It is proposed that the syndrome is a product of neocortical development rather than the manifestation of a disinhibited primitive brain. Early recognition of symptoms and signs could lead to prevention through education and isolation of affected individuals. Repeatedly throughout history, groups of individuals, usually young men, have violently attacked other members of society, often with the approval of, or encouragement from, those in authority. The victims are

THE LANCET Hypothesis Syndrome

69 female Inuit and compared their plasma lipid profiles to those of healthyDanes. Their finding: The Inuit had lower levels of several types of lipids,including total cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, than Danish controls(Bang, H. O., , Lancet, 1971). Bang and Dyerberg later discovered that theInuit had higher-than-normal amounts of two omega- 3 fatty acids—docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6- 3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:- 3)—intheir plasma and platelet lipids that increased blood clotting time, leadingthe researchers to hypothesize that omega-3s could protect the Inuit fromthe cardiovascular consequences of their high-fat diet (Dyerberg, J., andBang, H. O., 1979).

The transformation of groups of previously nonviolent individuals into repetitive killers of defenceless members of society has been a recurring phenomenon throughout history. This transformation is characterised by a set of symptoms and signs suggesting a common syndrome—Syndrome E. Affected individuals show obsessive ideation, compulsive repetition, rapid desensitisation to violence, diminished affective reactivity, hyperarousal, environmental dependency, group contagion, and failure to adapt to changing stimulus-reinforcement associations. Yet memory, language, planning, and problem-solving skills remain intact. The main risk factors are male sex and age between 15 and 50. A pathophysiological model—“cognitive fracture”—is hypothesised, where hyperaroused orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices tonically inhibit the amygdala and are no longer regulated by visceral and somatic homoeostatic controls ordinarily supplied by subcortical systems. It is proposed that the syndrome is a product of neocortical development rather than the manifestation of a disinhibited primitive brain. Early recognition of symptoms and signs could lead to prevention through education and isolation of affected individuals. Repeatedly throughout history, groups of individuals, usually young men, have violently attacked other members of society, often with the approval of, or encouragement from, those in authority. The victims are