The energy source for enzymes like 2,3 diphosphoglycerate.

Reciprocal binding of oxygen and diphosphoglycerate by human hemoglobin.

and the important role of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate ..

Scheme of RBC glycolysis. The 2,3‐diphosphoglycerate (2,3‐DPG) accumulates with an increased activity of phosphofructokinase (PFK) and bisphosphoglycerate mutase [diphosphoglycerate mutase (DPGM)] () and decreased activity of pyruvate kinase (PK) ().

The oxygenation of hemoglobin in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

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- conditions which cannot be confirmed by lab tests, "including fibromyalgia, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, nonpsychotic or nonmelancholic depression, neurasthenia, and multiple chemical sensitivity disorder"; - any condition which might produce chronic fatigue but which is being sufficiently treated; - any condition which might produce chronic fatigue but whose treatment has already been completed; - any finding which on its own is not sufficient to strongly suggest one of the exclusionary conditions.

Effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on oxygen affinity of blood in sickle cell anemia.

Foulk et al reviewed 118 patients said to have a diagnosis of constitutional hepatic dysfunction. 58 were thought to have Gilbert's syndrome. Fatigue was the most common symptom, mentioned by 38. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also common. The investigators thought that the symptoms were secondary to anxiety about being told of chronic hepatic illness. Olsson et al isolated finding of hyperbilirubinaemia, and suggested that "Gilbert's" is merely a label applied to patients whose serum bilirubin is greater than two standard deviations above the mean.

The interaction of hemoglobin and its subunits with 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

2,3-Bisphosphoglyceric acid; Names; ..

The doctor said that as there were no symptoms with GS, these were being caused by ME. We were given a leaflets about ME and told that eventually she would get better. On her next visit another doctor didn't mention ME at all. When I questioned this he said that he didn't like people being labelled with ME (or as he preferred to call it 'Chronic Fatigue Syndrome'). He said that although medical opinion was that there were no symptoms with GS, everyone he saw diagnosed with it suffered similar symptoms. He said although there was no proof they were caused by GS, it seemed likely that GS did have something to do with it.

I had a similar experience. I tried to discuss with various Doctors I have seen over the years certain aspects of GS but the moment I mention the possibility of a link with GS there seems to be a perceivable change in attitudes. The whole experience over many years was frustrating in itself.

On the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced ..

In the presence of 2 × 10-4 M 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the P50 of hemoglobins A, A2, S, and C increased about twofold, signifying a substantial and equal decrease in oxygen affinity.

Both groups were given Purina Lab Chow ..

In the presence of 2 x 10(-4) M 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), the P(50) of hemoglobins A, A(2), S, and C increased about twofold, signifying a substantial and equal decrease in oxygen affinity.

Dietary Nucleotide Supplementation Raises Erythrocyte …

When discussing upregulation of the 2-5 Synthetase/RNase L system you will recall Vojdani showing that this can be induced by MTBE and benzenes in the presence of hsp 70. Is it therefore, the cross reactivity between hsp from the yeasts, and human hsp's with the immune system that is contributing to the clinical picture? The more yeasts seen on microscopy, the sicker you are. It would help to explain not only the upregulation of the RNase L enzymes, be they normal or low molecular weight, but the hypercoagulable state found in patients, and also steroid hormone resistance, which I see a lot of.