Fumaric acid synthesis involves three enzymes and starts with ..
Betaine: Betaine nowadays getting more importance in poultry industry as a feed additive due to its sparing effect on essential s like methionine and choline, reducing associated mortalities and muscle drip loss (). It has a sparing effect on methionine as a labile methyl donor and also protect the cells from osmotic stress (osmotic protectant), maintaining their regular metabolic activities (). They are found widely in variety of plants and also synthesized by microbes (). Although, betaine is not a dietary essential component for poultry but its supplementation helps in maintaining the osmolytic protective property especially in ed birds (). Betaine supplementation promotes higher water retention in the cells especially resulting in more () and improves meat quality (). In addition, it plays a role in lean meat production by positively affecting the lipid metabolism with increased s catabolism via carnithine synthesis pathway and thus reduces carcass fat deposition ().
FUMARIC ACID For Synthesis Conforms to USP-NF 2-Butenedioic acid
Exogenous enzymes: Exogenous enzymes including â-glucanase, xylanase, amylase, 〈-galactosidase, protease, lipase, phytase, etc., have been supplemented in poultry diets and reported to modulate the gut microbiota of birds (). The effects of enzymes on gut microflora were classified into two phases: an ileal phase and a caecal phase. In the ileum, enzymes simply reduce the number of bacteria by increasing the rate of digestion and limiting the amounts of substrates available to the microflora. While, in the caecal phase enzymes produce soluble, poorly absorbed sugars which feed beneficial bacteria. However, the effects of enzymes on the gut microflora may be far more than those two phases ().
Procedure in which students attempt to determine the mechanism for the isomerization of maleic acid to fumaric acid by heating with hydrochloric acid.