Introduction to Metabolism and Enzymes - GRADE 12 …

- Research, development, production and safety of Biosynthetic Human Insulin.

A simple introduction to how enzymes act as catalysts

Another complication in the biosynthesis of enzymes is the fact that
even if the amino acids are synthesized in the right order, the enzyme
still may be inactive due to the improper folding of the side chains.
It is necessary to ensure proper folding of the enzyme during synthesis.’
Otherwise, the enzyme usually folds up in a denatured (inactive) state.
The proper conditions for folding to take place are provided by the structure
of the cell.

- Research, Production and Safety of Biosynthetic Human Insulin, 1993.

A dehydration synthesis reaction involving un-ionized moners..: ..

In the single celled organism, , the chromosome
codes for 2000 to 4000 different polypeptide chains. It is estimated that
for the cell to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source, between 600
and 800 enzymes are utilized to conduct the syntheses needed for growth.18
Imagine the number of random events needed to explain these syntheses
and their components! Consider that each of these enzymes is interdependent
upon the others to do a particular job.

INTRODUCTION Enzymes have been used ever since mankind discovered ways to process food

An alternate procedure, solid phase peptide synthesis (Figure 3), speeds
up the process, but sacrifices purity.6 The important question
to be considered is this: how could an unknown random process “evolve”
a “soup” of enzymatically active proteins resulting in life
when a highly controlled laboratory synthesis of these same proteins is
difficult, produces low yields, and takes many days?

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The importance of each amino acid side chain is illustrated by the fact
that mutations which change the structure of the enzyme by placing a different
amino acid in the enzyme usually render it inactive, although it is true
that sometimes one amino acid may replace another without apparent ill
effect. This may in turn render an entire synthesis useless in an organism.
This will result either in death of the organism, or the organism may
have to rely upon an outside source for a nutrient that it once synthesized.
Changing an amino acid in an enzyme will often change its shape, making
it impossible for the substrate to bind to it and react.

Introduction to Enzymes Worksheet - PDF documents

Such properties are important in the regulation of all of the syntheses
that take place in the cell. How could these properties have arisen?
It is a little like the old 11 chicken and egg” dilemma; which
came first? Since the enzymes, substrates, repressors (or co-repressors
or inducers) and intermediate reactions are so interdependent, if
the origin of one is explained, then the origin of the others must
also be explained, since each have binding sites that match the

Introduction to enzymes worksheet PDF results

Macromolecules in the cell such as DNA, RNA, and proteins are interdependent
for mutual synthesis. Within the cell, proteins used for enzyme catalysis,
structural components, energy generation, and digestion of food, are produced
through an amazing manufacturing process, involving DNA as a template
for the three types of RNA (MRNA, TRNA, and RRNA), which in turn act as
different components in the synthesis and coding of each protein molecule.
But, each step in this complicated synthesis is catalyzed by an enzyme,
which, since it is a protein, would have had to be synthesized by the
same process! In other words, the end products of this reaction aid in
the synthesis of the starting components and catalyzes each reaction along,the
way, making up a complicated series of interrelationships. In order to
explain life, then, the appearance of this entire machinery must be explained.

Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

Added to these adverse effects of bovine and porcine insulin, were fears of long term complications ensuing from the regular injection of a foreign substance, as well as a projected decline in the production of animal derived insulin. These factors led researchers to consider synthesising Humulin by inserting the insulin gene into a suitable vector, the E.