The brain reserve hypothesis, brain atrophy and ..

The brain reserve hypothesis (BRH) is an influential hypothesis in neurology and cognitive science

education, and the brain reserve hypothesis ..

Background: Researchers have used the concept of brain reserve to explain the dissociation between pathological brain damage and cognitive and functional performance. A variety of brain reserve hypotheses exist, and different empirical strategies have been employed to investigate these variants. Objective: The study investigates (i) the relationship between measures of brain burden (atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH)) and measures of reserve (education, creativity, and intelligence);

according to the "brain reserve hypothesis", intelligence, ..

Intelligence, education, and the brain ..

N2 - The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls. We fitted multiple linear regression models for each of the cognitive measures and found that only NART IQ predicted executive and naming performance. Neither education nor NART IQ predicted performance on fluid intelligence, processing speed, vSTM or perceptual abilities. Education and NART IQ did not modify the effect of lesion severity on cognitive impairment. We also found that age significantly predicted performance on executive tests and the majority of our other cognitive measures, except vSTM and GNT. Age was the only predictor for fluid intelligence. This latter finding suggests that age plays a role in executive performance over and above the contribution of CR proxies in patients with focal frontal lesions. Overall, our results suggest that the CR proxies do not appear to modify the relationship between cognitive impairment and frontal lesions.

reserve hypothesis investigating both education and ..

AB - The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls. We fitted multiple linear regression models for each of the cognitive measures and found that only NART IQ predicted executive and naming performance. Neither education nor NART IQ predicted performance on fluid intelligence, processing speed, vSTM or perceptual abilities. Education and NART IQ did not modify the effect of lesion severity on cognitive impairment. We also found that age significantly predicted performance on executive tests and the majority of our other cognitive measures, except vSTM and GNT. Age was the only predictor for fluid intelligence. This latter finding suggests that age plays a role in executive performance over and above the contribution of CR proxies in patients with focal frontal lesions. Overall, our results suggest that the CR proxies do not appear to modify the relationship between cognitive impairment and frontal lesions.

04/06/2012 · Education and Dementia in the Context of the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis: A Systematic Review ..


Measures were taken of education, intelligence, creativity ..

Brain reserve can be differentiated from cognitive reserve which is seen more as the brain actively attempting to cope with or compensate for pathology. Rather than considering that these individuals brains are grossly anatomically different than those with less reserve (e.g., they have more synapses), the cognitive reserve hypothesis posits that they process tasks in a more efficient manner. More specifically, cognitive reserve can be view as a more efficient utilization of brain networks and or the enhanced ability to recruit alternate brain networks as needed. In this model, persons are considered to have the same amount of brain reserve capacity and the cognitive reserve model does not assume that there is some fixed cut-off or threshold at which functional impairment will occur. The critical threshold differs from one person to the next based on how efficient or resilient the remaining neural substrate processing is. The outcome is based on what processing is lost and what processing remains. A proposed definition of cognitive reserve is: the ability to optimize or maximize performance through differential recruitment of brain networks, which perhaps reflect the use of alternate cognitive strategies.

Little support was found for the brain reserve hypothesis

Brain reserve capacity is a theoretical construct that may include synapse count. Persons are considered to have different amounts of brain reserve capacity as dependent on a number of factors (e.g., level of education, age, intelligence, learning disabilities, etc). As a result a brain injury may appear less in a person with a high brain reserve since their function remains above a functional impairment cutoff threshold. In contrast a person with a lower brain reserve who sustain the same degree of injury may subsequently fall below the functional impairment cutoff threshold. Thus more brain reserve can be considered as a protective factor and less brain reserve would impart vulnerability.