wildanimals and plants may also have inherent value to people.

Whether they hadinstrumental value or not, they had, Pister believed, intrinsicvalue.

Such value is, to be sure, instrumentalvalue.

: In everyday language, an error is simply a mistake, but in science, error has a precise statistical meaning. An error is the difference between a measurement and the true value, often resulting from taking a . For example, imagine that you want to know if corn plants produce more massive ears when grown with a new fertilizer, and so you weigh ears of corn from those plants. You take the mass of your sample of 50 ears of corn and calculate an average. That average is a good estimate of what you are really interested in: the average mass of ears of corn that could be grown with this fertilizer. Your estimate is not a mistake — but it does have an error (in the statistical sense of the word) since your estimate is not the true value. Sampling error of the sort described above is inherent whenever a smaller sample is taken to represent a larger entity. Another sort of error results from systematic biases in measurement (e.g., if your scale were calibrated improperly, all of your measurements would be off). Systematic error biases measurements in a particular direction and can be more difficult to quantify than sampling error.

We frequently giveour fellow valuers reasons to value things instrumentally.

Clarification on P-value in Hypothesis testing? - …

Weisse's views did not immediately establish a following. He was a lone voice during a period that was dominated by the Tübingen school, who found the Griesbach hypothesis amenable to their rigid conception of the development of history in accordance with the Hegelian dialectic. Specifically, they saw Matthew as the Jewish thesis, Luke as the Gentile antithesis, and Mark as the mediating synthesis. However, the excesses of the school led a questioning of all their positions created a favorable climate for other approaches the synoptic problem. Holtzmann (1863) investigated his predecessors and organized his theory around a narrative source he called Alpha (A). Noticing that Matthew and Luke rarely agreed against Mark, Alpha's nature so closely resembled Mark that Holtzmann called it an Ur-Markus. With a Mark-like source, there needs to be a saying source. which Holtzmann termed Lambda (L) for the logia. Holtzmann's work came out when members of the Tübingen school were retiring, and the new generation of scholars quickly and enthusiastically adopted Holtzmann's Markan hypothesis.

Valuer B has,in effect, given Valuer A a reason to value the cracked ceramicpitcher instrumentally.

Thatthis kind of worth, no less than the three species of value(instrumental, intrinsic, and inherent) is conferred, ascribed -- thatis, attributed (verb transitive) -- to beings with a good of theirown, such that were there no "attributers" (no attributingsubjects), there would be no inherent worth?

This involves becoming interested in how our minds work, how we can monitor, fine tune, and modify their operations for the better.


Confidence Intervals and the Inherent Uncertainty ..

Instrumental value is also sometimes contrasted with“constitutive” value. The idea behind this distinction isthat instrumental values lead to intrinsic values,while constitutive values to intrinsic values. Forexample, my giving you money, or a latte, may causally result in yourexperiencing pleasure, whereas your experiencing pleasure may, without causing, your being happy. For manypurposes this distinction is not very important and often not noted,and constitutive values can be thought, along with instrumentalvalues, as things that are ways of getting something of intrinsicvalue. I'll use “instrumental” in a broad sense, toinclude such values.

the interval excludes the value of the null hypothesis.

Of course, the central question philosophers have been interested in,is that of what is of value, which is taken tocontrast with value. Paradigmatically, money issupposed to be good, but not intrinsically good: it is supposed to begood because it leads to other good things: HD TV's and houses indesirable school districts and vanilla lattes, for example. Thesethings, in turn, may only be good for what they lead to: exciting NFLSundays and adequate educations and caffeine highs, for example. Andthose things, in turn, may be good only for what they lead to, buteventually, it is argued, something must be good, and not just forwhat it leads to. Such things are said to be .

The lowest BIC value overall occurred in hypothesis 4 with ..

True, when, in response to the question What good areyou?, one considers one's own value, some value remains when onesubtracts one's instrumental value to family, friends, employers, andsociety from one's total value.

the null hypothesis by comparing p-value to lpha ..

: In everyday language, suggests the state of being unsure of something. Scientists, however, usually use the word when referring to measurements. The uncertainty of a measurement (not to be confused with the inherent provisionality of all scientific ideas!) is the range of values within which the true value is likely to fall. In science, uncertainty is not a bad thing; it's simply a fact of life. Every measurement has some uncertainty. If you measure the length of a pen with a standard ruler, you won't be able to tell whether its length is 5.880 inches, 5.875 inches, or 5.870 inches. A ruler with more precision will help narrow that range, but cannot eliminate uncertainty entirely. For more on a related idea, see our discussion of below.