Where We Have Been; Where We Can Go

After a hypothesis has been repeatedly tested, a hierarchy of scientific thought develops

but it can only be used to form a hypothesis, ..

Specialists are often those on the ground, getting their hands dirty and doing the detailed work that forms the bedrock of scientific practice. Without their efforts, science as we know it would not exist. However, mainstream science has long suffered from the tunnel vision that overspecialization encourages, and thought that the epidemic overspecialization and in his time and unable to see the forest for the trees. That has been slowly changing in my lifetime, so that collaborative efforts are drawing from multiple disciplines and achieving synthetic views that were not feasible in earlier times, and patterns are newly recognized that were invisible in a scientific world filled with isolated specialists. Many were made by non-professionals, specialists working outside of their field of professional expertise, and generalists traversing disciplinary boundaries. Scientific training today attempts to prevent that overspecialized tunnel vision, and today’s practicing scientists ideally get deep into the details and then pull back and try to see context, connections, and patterns. A comprehensivist tries to understand the details well enough to refrain from making unwarranted generalizations while also striving for that big-picture awareness. There are also to approach analyses; each can provide critical insight, and scientists and other analysts often try to use both.

After a hypothesis has been repeatedly tested, a hierarchy of scientific thought develops.

Distinguishing Between Hypotheses, Theories and Facts

There is , but it is currently thought that life on Earth today descended from organism, a creature known today as the Last Universal Common Ancestor (“”). The reasoning is partly that all life has a preference for using certain types of molecules. Many molecules with the same atomic structure can form mirror images of themselves. That mirror-image phenomenon is called . In nature, such mirror images occur randomly, but life prefers one mirror image over the other. In all life on Earth, proteins are virtually without exception left-handed, while sugars are right-handed. If there was more than one line of descent, life with different “handedness” would be expected, but it has never been found, which has led scientists to think that LUCA is the only survivor that spawned all life on Earth today. All other lineages died out (the likely answer, and there was probably hundreds of millions of years of evolution on Earth before LUCA lived), or they may have all descended from the same original organism. As we will see, this is far from the only instance when such seminal events are considered to have probably happened only . Also, the unique structure of DNA and many enzymes are common to all life, and they did not have to form the way that they did. That they came through different ancestral lines is unlikely.

The book that made Milankovitch famous (Croll’s work is still obscure, even though Milankovitch gave full credit to Croll in his work) was co-authored by Alfred Wegener, who a decade earlier first published his hypothesis that . As is often the case with radical new hypotheses, , but Wegener was the first to propose a comprehensive hypothesis to explain an array of detailed evidence. Wegener was a meteorologist working outside of his specialty when he proposed his “continental drift” hypothesis. His hypothesis was , and . His continental drift hypothesis quickly sank into obscurity. It was not until my lifetime, when , that Wegener’s work returned from exile and became a cornerstone of geological theory. Ice age data and theory does not pose an immediate threat to the or "," so the history of developing the data and theories has been publicly available.

Science and the Catholic Church - Wikipedia

Another major advance happened in the late 20th century: the ability to analyze DNA. was discovered in 1953. In 1973, . In 2003, . was accomplished in 2005, for orangutans in 2011, and for in 2012. The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from , due to Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16,000 to 13,000 years ago, , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like. Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements. In 2010, suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. DNA testing has demonstrated that all of today’s humans are , of whom a few hundred and conquered Earth. The , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that , -style. Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the 1980s.

Jovem Revela a Matemática Por Trás de Seus 95% de Acertos.

Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.