## WISE » Hypothesis Testing Question 4: H0 and H1

### H1 hypothesis | roagunmevirulsiojoytlebereser

Before actually conducting a hypothesis test, you have to put two possible hypotheses on the table — the null hypothesis is one of them. But, if the null hypothesis is rejected (that is, there was sufficient evidence against it), what’s your alternative going to be? Actually, three possibilities exist for the second (or alternative) hypothesis, denoted H_{a}. Here they are, along with their shorthand notations in the context of the pie example:

### h1 hypothesis Are 2,000 words too long

When people know how scientists go about their work and reach scientific conclusions, and what the limitations of such conclusions are, they are more likely to react thoughtfully to scientific claims and less likely to reject them out of hand or accept them uncritically.

No matter how the curriculum is organized, it should provide students with opportunities to become aware of the great range of scientific disciplines that exist. There is no sense, however, in having students memorize definitions of anthropology, astrophysics, biochemistry, paleobacteriology, and the rest of the family. Individual students or small groups of students can study different disciplines in some detail—most scientific societies are happy to help out—and then share their findings with one another. The focus of such studies should be substantive (what are typical studies like in the discipline) and sociological (how is the field organized and who is in it), and they should probably involve, over an extended time, interviews, field trips, readings, data analysis, and, if possible, the conduct of small-scale experiments or field studies. Such activities will contribute to science literacy goals, and they should also help students realize how many different career possibilities exist in science.

## The null is H0: μ1≤μ2 and the alternative hypothesis is H1: μ1>μ2

The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) published a report in 2005 entitled *Health, United States,* containing extensive information on major trends in the health of Americans. Data are provided for the US population as a whole and for specific ages, sexes and races. The NCHS report indicated that in 2002 Americans paid an average of $3,302 per year on health care and prescription drugs. An investigator hypothesizes that in 2005 expenditures have decreased primarily due to the availability of generic drugs. To test the hypothesis, a sample of 100 Americans are selected and their expenditures on health care and prescription drugs in 2005 are measured. The sample data are summarized as follows: n=100, x̄

## 08/08/2011 · H0 is a null hypothesis while H1 is an ..

Students' ability to deal with abstractions and hypothetical cases improves in high school. Now the unfinished and tentative nature of science may make some sense to them. Students should not be allowed to conclude, however, that the mutability of science permits any belief about the world to be considered as good as any other belief. Theories compete for acceptance, but the only serious competitors are those theories that are backed by valid evidence and logical arguments.

## To test the hypothesis H0 : = 100 against H1 : >

At this level, students need to become more systematic and sophisticated in conducting their investigations, some of which may last for weeks or more. That means closing in on an understanding of what constitutes a good experiment. The concept of controlling variables is straightforward but achieving it in practice is difficult. Students can make some headway, however, by participating in enough experimental investigations (not to the exclusion, of course, of other kinds of investigations) and explicitly discussing how explanation relates to experimental design.

## Statistical hypothesis testing - Wikipedia

Statistical computing packages provide exact p-values as part of their standard output for hypothesis tests. In fact, when using a statistical computing package, the steps outlined about can be abbreviated. The hypotheses (step 1) should always be set up in advance of any analysis and the significance criterion should also be determined (e.g., α =0.05). Statistical computing packages will produce the test statistic (usually reporting the test statistic as t) and a p-value. The investigator can then determine statistical significance using the following: If p __ α then reject H___{0}.