crystal grown by hydrothermal synthesis.
We detected the first organic chemistry in quartz minerals of tectonic fault zones in Archean quartz dykes of Western Australia." 25 Mar 2015: Origin-of-life puzzle cracked How Earth's earliest life overcame a genetic paradox by Tim Wogan, Science News, 30 Jan 2015.
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Spherical Bismuth Titanate Crystals
Chatham claims to start with commercial beryl of an essentially colorless type and to add a certain amount of chromium oxide to the flux from which the crystals are grown. It would seem from this that the use of low-grade beryl accomplishes the purpose of furnishing the feed stock without requiring the long and involved purification and calcination of the powders required by the Verneuil method. The color of the best Chatham stones is an attractive deep green that resembles fairly closely some of the top-quality Muzo emeralds, but they tend to be even more bluish than these natural stones.
Hydrothermal synthesis has been undertaken successfully by many different scientists at various times for a period of more than one hundred years. Perhaps the man who contributed most to the advancement of this technique, and to whom later workers owe the greatest debt, was an Italian named Spezia. His work led the way to the efforts of the I.G. Farben group in their production of synthetic emerald in the early to mid-1930s, to those of the Bell-Laboratories in synthetic quartz, and presumably, to Gilson, Chatham and Linde's initial efforts as well.
Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nano-Crystalline Hydroxyapatite
Natural quartz calledLascus is mined from the earth and provides the raw material for theprocess . The material is milled to a uniform size, approximately 1"to 1.5" in diameter, cleaned, and etched. The solute used in theautoclave is only partly water. Either a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or sodiumcarbonate (Na2CO3) solute is used. The quartz and the solute nearly fill the vesselwhen it is closed. This is one of the reasons high pressures developed as wateris basically incompressible.
Fluid Flows in an Industry Hydrothermal Autoclave …
In the 1960s, a new method of hydrothermal flux synthesis was applied to Emerald creation. This method is largely used today in the creation of synthetic Emeralds. The technique involves dissolving the crystal nutrients in an acidic solution of water and chemicals at high temperatures and pressures, with crystallization occurring in a cooler chamber in the reactor. These early versions of the present-day hydrothermal Emerald creation were known as Emerita and Symerald.