Chemotherapy: Research Paper - Kristinas ePortfolio
There are several substances that are known to increase the risk of cancer whether by exerting carcinogenic effects indirectly or acting directly as a carcinogen. Alcohol is such a substance that is known to exert toxic effects on the liver. However, it can also exert a carcinogenic effect indirectly to the breast by cell stimulations. The breasts being affected by hormonal stimulus, especially during the menstrual cycle, can also be affected by hormone replacement therapy after menopause. Studies have shows the risk of cancer was even higher in women who used a combined oestrogen and progesterone therapy. There has been significant evidence of women development breast cancer after they have been treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin disease. This is especially significant with those who were treated for Hodgkin at a very young age. This is similar to the breast cancer caused by exposure to the radiation from atomic bombs. The aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke is carcinogenic not only causing lung cancer but also other cancers such as breast cancer. The effect of smoking acts in a similar way as the poly-cyclic hydrocarbons in well done meat which is also carcinogenic.6 A correlation was shown between a diet high in animal fat and high fat dairy products in pre-menopausal women causing an increase in the risk of breast cancer. Therefore, exposure to substances such as such as alcohol, tobacco, hormone replacement therapy, high fat diet, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer.
Chemotherapy: Research Paper; ..
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The impact of combination cytotoxic chemotherapy on gonadal function is dependent on gender and age of the patient undergoing treatment and the nature and dose of the drugs received. Both the testis and ovary are vulnerable to radiation damage, and survivors need to be assessed for infertility.
How to Write a Research Paper on Breast Cancer
The white matter disease that my wife experienced and caused her death wasprimarily a result of Whole Brain Radiation and secondarily a result of CocktailChemotherapy of Taxol & Carboplatin (Methotrexate was icing on the cake).The Cocktail Chemotherapy of Taxol & Carboplatin caused microscopic ovariancancer cells to seed inside the CNS to form a tumor on the cerebellum and tumorson the spinal cord, with concomitant necrotizing leukoencephalopathy. The WholeBrain Radiation resulted in the death of tumor cells and associated reaction insurrounding normal brain. Such reactions tend to occur more frequently in largermetastatic lesions. Late delayed Radiation Necrosis (also known as RadiationEncephalopathy) is often irreversible and progressive, leading to severedisability or death (all symptoms my wife experienced).
The possible complications and side effects ..
The MRI's showed the ventricles overall were prominent and there was wideningof the sulci consistent with cerebral atrophy (wasting away of brain cells andtissues). There was diffuse, abnormal signal intensity within theperiventricular white matter, consistent with post radiation changes. The signalabnormality within the white matter appeared slightly increased compared to herprior studies. The Pet Scan showed globally decreased radiotracer uptake withinthe brain, bilaterally, consistent with involutional change and prior radiationtherapy. Delayed radiation injuries result in increased tissue pressure fromedema, vascular injury leading to infarction, damage to endothelial cells andfibrinoid necrosis of small arteries and arterioles. My wife suffered a stroketo the left basal ganlia area of the brain in January 2000, confirmed by anenhanced MRI.
therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy or surgery
Most effective thesis statements contain this type of structure, often called an action plan or plan of development. This is such an effective type of thesis because it clearly tells the reader what is going to be discussed; it also helps the writer stay focused and organized. How can you now use this pattern to create an effective thesis statement?