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FM Synthesis & Video Game Music: A Brief History | 16 …

Physical Modeling Synthesis is mathematical, and uses set algorithms to define the harmonic and acoustic characteristics of the sound being generated. This method is mostly used for creating real-sounding instruments, as it is programmed to make characteristic distinctions between various aspects of the instrument being created. For instance, the materials that make up the instrument, the size, the stiffness of a membrane, the volume of a reverberant object (in order to reproduce its resonant frequency), and many other fine details are factored into the algorithm that generates each sound’s different qualities using various forms of synthesis (dependent upon manufacturer).

Barry Vercoe writes Music 11, a next-generation music synthesis program (later evolving into csound, which is still widely used).

This shift in rock music (grafted onto the historical synthesis of ..

And so it happened, as Lovelace had predicted, that the computer (or modern "calculating engine") brought scientists and composers together to construct such "elaborate" pieces of music out of new algorithmic programming methods.

How about the Bell Labs Digital synthesizer? The demonstration of Overdubbing in real time by Roger Powell is downright historic:

I would like to thank you very much for this demanding and highly informative project. As a pipe organ builder and electronic musician myself I could retrieve a whole treasure of additional knowledge. It would be great if you could extend your timeline and include also newer tools like i.e. the evolution and relevance of sampling, or the highly important developments of IRCAM (Max!) or Native Instruments (Reaktor!) etc. But again: Thanks so much for your fantastic work so far!

song in the history of popular music, ..

The role of the music technologist has changed throughout history, ..

To begin with the title itself, dictionary defines an "algorithm" simply as "a predetermined set of instructions for solving a specific problem in a limited number of steps." The "problem" composers are faced with, of course, is creating music; the "instructions" for creating this music according to the definition are "predetermined," suggesting that intervention on the part of the human composer is superceded once the compositional process itself is set into motion, as hinted at as well in the above Brian Eno quote. Thus, "automated composition" also suitably describes this kind of music, since "automation" refers to "anything that can move or act of itself."

Case History-synthesis and Decomposition of MTBE …

The idea of utilizing formal instructions and processes to create music dates back in musical history as far back as the ancient Greeks. Pythagoras believed in a direct relation between the laws of nature and the harmony of sounds as expressed in music:

A Brief History of Optical Synthesis

Many of those who use synthesizers in the modern technological world are not well versed in the basics of different kinds of synthesis. With the ease of computer-based synthesis, any synthesis program can be opened and fiddled around with by ear until something “cool” comes out. To break the mold in the use of synthesizers in the modern music world, you have to be educated or lucky. This is exactly why it is more important now than ever before to understand the fundamentals of different synthesis methods.

FM synthesis revolutionized the music industry, ..

RNA codons designate specific amino acids. The order of the bases in the codon sequence determines the amino acid that is to be produced. Any of the four nucleotides in RNA may occupy one of three possible codon positions. Therefore, there are 64 possible codon combinations. Sixty-one codons specify and three (UAA, UAG, UGA) serve as stop signals to designate the end of protein synthesis. The codon AUG codes for the amino acid methionine and serves as a start signal for the beginning of translation. Multiple codons may also specify the same amino acid. For example, the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU, and AGC all specify serine. The RNA codon table above lists codon combinations and their designated amino acids. Reading the table, if uracil (U) is in the first codon position, adenine (A) in the second, and cytosine (C) in the third, the codon UAC specifies the amino acid tyrosine. The abbreviations and names of all 20 amino acids are listed below.