Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: ..
The C. elegans pharynx undergoes elongation and morphogenesis to its characteristic bi-lobed shape between the 2- and 3-fold stages of embryogenesis. During this period, the pharyngeal muscles and marginal cells forming the isthmus between the anterior and posterior pharyngeal bulbs elongate and narrow. We have identified the spontaneous mutant pyr-1(cu8) exhibiting defective pharyngeal isthmus elongation, cytoskeletal organization defects, and maternal effect lethality. pyr-1 encodes CAD, a trifunctional enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine synthesis, and pyr-1(cu8) mutants are rescued by supplying exogenous pyrimidines. Similar pharyngeal defects and maternal effect lethality were found in sqv-1, sqv-8, rib-1 and rib-2 mutants, which affect enzymes involved in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) synthesis. rib-1 mutant lethality was enhanced in a pyr-1 mutant background, indicating that HSPG synthesis is very sensitive to decreased pyrimidine pools, and HS disaccharides are moderately decreased in both rib-1 and pyr-1 mutants. We hypothesize that HSPGs are necessary for pharyngeal isthmus elongation, and pyr-1 functions upstream of proteoglycan synthesizing enzymes by providing precursors of UDP-sugars essential for HSPG synthesis.
heparan sulfate | Sigma-Aldrich
T1 - Regulation of basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan, gene expression in glomerular epithelial cells by high glucose medium
have noticed that heparan sulfate declines with age. What doesn’t? Anyway, there is speculation that it is implicated in the aging process and in the last few years it has been seen as a potential target for helping to fight skin aging. Meanwhile, scientists at skincare giant Sheseido have made a link between the decline heparan sulfate and age spots ().
Heparan sulfate and cell division - SciELO
In our bodies heparan sulfate is in “close proximity to the cell surface or extracellular matrix proteins” (). Due to the ubiquity of heparan sulfates, the large amount of proteins they sequester and their fine-tuning effect on growth factors, heparan sulfate is involved in just about everything a cell does: proliferation, migration, differentiation and cell-to-cell interaction ().
18/11/2017 · Heparan sulfate and cell division
It is a proteoglycan, which is a kind of protein with a chain of glycosaminoglycans attached. This is good to know because glycosaminoglycans are something that I have come across and have learned to appreciate for their role in maintaining and supporting collagen and elastin and the skin’s ‘bounce’. There are several types of glycosaminoglycans, the more familiar hyaluronic acid is one of them. Heparan sulfate is the glycosaminoglycan that is vital to cellular division and cellular regulation.
cells produce a completely unsulfated heparan proteoglycan
Once you start digging in to heparan sulfate, it becomes clear that it plays a major role in the skin. Fibroblast growth factors and their receptors are dependent on binding to heparan sulfate, and this interaction is an absolute requirement for full signaling In particular, heparan sulfate has a thing about fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). FYI, a fibroblast is a type of cell that is responsible for making the extracellular matrix and collagen.
in heparan sulfate synthesis in ..
In the near future, we shall determine the localization of many of the biosyntheticenzymes, and it will be interesting to see whether all are present together in the sameGolgi compartment or spread through various compartments. If they are spread across theGolgi, this will pose further questions regarding how a nascent proteoglycan isappropriately “chaperoned” through the various compartments. However, given the importanceof heparan sulfate for multicellular animal life, potential roles in human disease, and theneed for better sources of heparin for clinical use, perhaps by in vitro biosynthesis, theorganization of the heparan sulfate synthetic machinery is of considerable interest.