Heel Lifts and Their Relationship to Low Back Pain - Research

Using heel lifts and shoe lifts for prosthesis fitting and other rehabilitation needs.

A Heel Lift is a mechanical device, ..

The Rheo Knee is an advanced prosthetic device that has users keeping their focus away from how they are walking, and more on a chosen activity. The Rheo Knee can recognize and respond to the most delicate changes in walking speed or tract of land. It continuously learns and adapts to one’s walking style and environment, and restores people’s ability to walk naturally, comfortably, and confidently at any speed. The device is lightweight and has an anatomical shape for easy cosmetic covering, and is now available for a female pyramid insert for those with long transfemoral residual limbs.

About Heel Lifts, by Dr. Art Gross

The world’s first and only motor-powered, artificially genius prosthesis for above-knee amputees is the Power Knee. The Power Knee is designed to restore the power load of lost muscles and symmetry of movement that is vital for those who’ve lost limbs. This device can help lift a user from a seated to a standing position, and even power them up stairs. On level ground and changing terrain, this device actively lifts the heel off the ground. The Power Knee mimics the natural sense one has about their body positioning, and monitors and adjusts the locomotion of the limbs for a natural movement.

prosthesis during the stance phase of gait (e.g., shock absorption, close to normal roll-over characteristics, and smooth transition into swing) depends on the Amputee Independent Prosthesis Properties (AIPPs), defined here as the mechanical properties of the prosthesis that directly influence the performance of the amputee. Accordingly, if research studies are to advance the design of prostheses to achieve improved user performance, AIPPs must be a primary consideration. However, the majority of reported studies can be categorized as either human performance testing of commercial prosthetic components or AIPP characterization; only in a few notable cases have studies combined these two approaches. Moreover, very little consistency exists in the current methods used for AIPP characterization, thus making comparisons between the results of such studies very difficult. This article introduces a framework for studying prosthesis design, which includes AIPP characterization, human performance and/or gait simulation studies, and detailed design. This framework provides a structure for reviewing previous approaches to AIPP characterization, discussing both their merits and shortcomings and their use in previous experimental and simulation studies. For the purposes of this review, stance phase AIPP models have been categorized as either lumped parameter or roll-over shape based.

Walk-on Reaction Heel / Toe Lift ..

design approaches, it is not possible to state with certainty whether or not current design practice involves the explicit use of AIPPs. Nevertheless, the very limited focus on AIPPs in the literature suggests that many of the current studies of the effects of prosthetic components on gait do not further our understanding of the relationships between the mechanical properties of prostheses and amputee gait. This limited focus is demonstrated by the fact that of the 37 studies identified as suitable for potential inclusion in the systematic Cochrane review [10] on prescription of prosthetic ankle-foot mechanisms, only 3 described the AIPPs of the components used during testing. Given a better understanding of AIPPs and their influence on amputee gait, an effective approach to prosthesis design can be envisaged in which the first stage is to identify the required AIPPs for different amputee groups, either from published empirical data or by simulating amputee gait using an AIPP-based prosthesis model. Then, alternative design solutions (i.e., materials, geometry, and physical construction) can be assessed using standard engineering analysis techniques, such as finite element analysis, to establish whether the design solutions realize the required AIPPs.

Calf muscles then contract to lift the body (heel) ..

articles identified, 67 percent adopted the lumped parameter approach for the characterization of prosthetic feet. Such models use discrete mass, spring, and damper elements to represent the mechanical response of more complex, continuous structures to static and/or dynamic loading. Referring to , the spring elements model the stiffness (reciprocal of compliance) of the prosthesis. The damper elements model energy dissipation within the prosthesis as a result of friction of various kinds (but approximated as being viscous). The advantage of lumped parameter models is their simplicity, with only a small number of parameters needing identification. Their disadvantage is that a single lumped parameter model represents the viscoelastic properties at only one location on the prosthesis and in only one direction; multiple models must be used to represent the properties at different moments during stance. The locations and directions, relative to the foot, at which the viscoelastic properties are measured are usually chosen to be representative of one or more key points in the gait cycle, such as heel-strike and push-off, but this is rather arbitrary and does not fully represent prosthesis behavior throughout stance. Lumped parameter models include the Maxwell (spring and damper in series), Voigt (spring and damper in parallel), and Kelvin or Standard Linear Solid (Maxwell model in parallel with a spring) [45]. The Maxwell model, however, is not suitable for modeling prosthetic feet as it predicts continuous creep under constant stress and eventual complete stress relaxation given constant strain. It is, thus, more suitable for modeling the behavior of fluids or softer materials, such as polymers [45].

Mastectomy Breast Forms | Post Mastectomy Breast Prosthesis

In a sound leg, running involves the following actions: the quadriceps muscles (front of the thigh) move the leg forward, bending the hip and straightening the knee; the hamstrings (back of the thigh) then act as a brake to stop the swinging lower leg and straighten the hip; the knee is allowed to bend a bit to absorb the shock of the foot hitting the ground and the quadriceps straightens the leg again as the body moves over the foot; the hip muscles also help the quadriceps and hamstrings to move the leg. Calf muscles then contract to lift the body (heel) to allow the other leg to swing through and also help drive the body forward; like the quadriceps, they also help to absorb the impact of hitting the ground. For an above-knee amputee like Fox, the hip muscle had to perform the work that would otherwise have been done by the quadriceps and hamstrings. The artificial knee also had to stay straight in full extension while the leg was bearing weight or the leg would buckle.