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The 2007–8 global financial crisis has shown the failure of private finance to efficiently allocate capital to finance real capital development. The resilience and stability of Brazil’s financial system has received attention, since it navigated relatively smoothly through the Great Recession and the collapse of the shadow banking system. This raises the question of whether it is possible that the alternative approaches followed by some developing countries might provide an indication of more stable regulatory approaches generally. There has been much discussion about how to support private long-term finance in order to meet Brazil’s growing infrastructure and investment needs. One of the essential functions of the financial system is to provide the long-term funding needed for long-lived and expensive capital assets. However, one of the main difficulties of the current private financial system is its failure to provide long-term financing, as the short-termism in Brazil’s financial market is a major obstacle to financing long-term assets. In its current form, the National Economic and Social Development Bank (BNDES) is the main source of long-term funding in the country. However, BNDES has been subject to a range of criticisms, such as crowding out private sector bank lending, and it is said to be hampering the development of the local capital market. This paper argues that, rather than following the traditional approach to justify the existence of public banks—and BNDES in particular, based on market failures—finding an effective answer to this question requires a theory of financial instability.
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Women s and Gender Studies BYU Women s Studies Brigham Young University What inspired you to focus on the shift in women s civil responsibilities and the separate spheres ideology as your senior thesis
This paper cites the debate that extends from US 19th-century institutional doctrine to the approach of long-time Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry President Yevgeny Primakov to illustrate the logic behind spending central bank and other sovereign foreign-exchange returns on modernizing and upgrading the domestic economy rather than simply recycling the earnings to US and European financial markets in what looks like an increasingly risky economic environment, as these economies confront debt deflation and increasing fiscal tightness.
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I have principally drawn on Douglas Vickers' discussion of the nature and role of "money capital" beyond the General Equilibrium domain where the issues of finance are, alternatively, oxymoronic or redundant. I can testify that Vickers' examination of the "full marginal cost of relaxing the money capital availability constraint" integrates the analysis of operating and financial issues under real world conditions'. Vickers and like-minded analysts such as Marris, Herendeen and Chamberlain have succeeded, I judge, in establishing the economic role of equity capital in an uncertain world. From that analysis and my own experience, the injunction to maximize growth subject to (1) delivering minimally satisfactory rates of return on sales and on capital employed while (2) not risking the long-run survival of the frn makes operating and investment sense.