BBC - GCSE Bitesize: Understanding photosynthesis

And so this ends the timeline, but the contributions of these philosophers and scientists live on.
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28/05/2017 · Greek scientists: Authors: Historians: ..

Grammatical variants of the term ‘observation’ have beenapplied to impressively different perceptual and non-perceptualprocess and to records of the results they produce. Their diversity isa reason to doubt whether general philosophical accounts ofobservation, observables, and observational data can tellepistemologists as much as local accounts grounded in close studies ofspecific kinds of cases. Furthermore, scientists continue to find waysto produce data that can’t be called observational without stretchingthe term to the point of vagueness.

historical understanding of photosynthesis what did Greek scientist believe?
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Photosynthesis is a process used by ..

The fact that science is seldom a solitary pursuit suggests that onemight be able to use pragmatic considerations to finesse questionsabout what observation reports express. Scientificclaims—especially those with practical and policyapplications—are typically used for purposes that are bestserved by public evaluation. Furthermore the development andapplication of a scientific theory typically requires collaborationand in many cases is promoted by competition. This, together with thefact that investigators must agree to accept putative evidence beforethey use it to test a theoretical claim, imposes a pragmatic conditionon observation reports: an observation report must be such thatinvestigators can reach agreement relatively quickly and relativelyeasily about whether it provides good evidence with which to test atheory (Cf. Neurath 1913). Feyerabend took this requirement seriouslyenough to characterize observation sentences pragmatically in terms ofwidespread decidability. In order to be an observation sentence, hesaid, a sentence must be contingently true or false, and such thatcompetent speakers of the relevant language can quickly andunanimously decide whether to accept or reject it on the basis whathappens when they look, listen, etc. in the appropriate way under theappropriate observation conditions (Feyerabend 1959, 18ff).

04/01/2018 · Understanding photosynthesis. You should be able to describe how the understanding of the process of photosynthesis has developed. Ancient Greek scientists
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Scientists obtain a great deal of the evidence they use by observingnatural and experimentally generated objects and effects. Much of thestandard philosophical literature on this subject comes from20th century logical empiricists, their followers, andcritics who embraced their issues and accepted some of theirassumptions even as they objected to specific views. Their discussionsof observational evidence tend to focus on epistemological questionsabout its role in theory testing. This entry follows their lead eventhough observational evidence also plays important and philosophicallyinteresting roles in other areas including scientific discovery, thedevelopment of experimental tools and techniques, and the applicationof scientific theories to practical problems.

Aristotle: Aristotle, ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who was one of the greatest intellectual figures of Western history.
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Ancient Greek Science - Ancient History Encyclopedia

Francis Bacon argued long ago that the best way to discover thingsabout nature is to use experiences (his term for observations as wellas experimental results) to develop and improve scientific theories(Bacon1620 49ff). The role of observational evidence in scientificdiscovery was an important topic for Whewell (1858) and Mill (1872)among others in the 19th century. Recently, Judaea Pearl,Clark Glymour, and their students and associates addressed itrigorously in the course of developing techniques for inferring claimsabout causal structures from statistical features of the data theygive rise to (Pearl, 2000; Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines 2000). Butsuch work is exceptional. For the most part, philosophers followedKarl Popper who maintained, contrary to the title of one of his bestknown books, that there is no such thing as a ‘logic ofdiscovery’.(Popper 1959, 31) Drawing a sharp distinction betweendiscovery and justification, the standard philosophical literaturedevotes most of its attention to the latter.

13/06/2013 · Important Greek figures such ..

Until the 1930s, the O2 produced from photosynthesis was believed to originate from CO2. L.B. Niel, a graduate student at Stanford University at the time, hypothesized that the O2 produced during photosynthesis came from H2O rather than from CO2. It was all well and good to suggest something like that, but it was not an easy hypothesis to test. The key was that scientists had to be able to distinguish whether the O2 came from CO2 or H2O. In 1941, two scientists named Samuel Ruben and Martin Kamen did just that and showed that the O2 released during photosynthesis came from H2O. How did they do it? We know; the suspense is killing you. They made use of isotopes, or chemical elements that have the same number of protons as the regular element, but a different number of neutrons. These two geniuses also discovered 14C, an isotope of carbon, which has since been extensively used to carbon date fossils and ancient artifacts.