BIOCHEMISTRY CHAPTER 29: LIPID SYNTHESIS: …

In red algae and photosynthetic diatoms, galactolipids are characterized by a high proportion of .

Synthesis of the structured lipid 1,3 ..

A specific haplotype increasing the biosynthesis of long-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids was discovered and its importance in the development of modern pathologies is demonstrated ().

Curiously, the glycerol moiety is esterified by two moles of palmitic acid.

Glyceroneogenesis and the Source of Glycerol for …

The anoxic tolerance of is also well developed. The animals survive anoxic conditions for at least 24 h at 20°C with a viability of 90-100% (; ; ; ), and they consume about 2/3 of their carbohydrate stores during this time (). Lipid utilization is needed for prolonged survival, but at least 5 kPa external O2 is required (). and are able to maintain stable metabolic rates (oxygen consumption/CO2 production) down to 3.6–5.1 kPa O2 (; ). The metabolic rate then decreases with further reduction of the oxygen tension; 50% of the aerobic value is attained at 1 kPa O2 and only 3–5% under anoxic conditions (; ). When animals are subjected to oxygen deprivation, free and protein-bound NADH fluorescence increases rapidly during the first 30 minutes, followed by a further more gradual increase during the next 130 minutes. After approximately 220 minutes of anoxia, the worms enter a rigor state, which is correlated with an accelerated increase of free NADH (). The long time span before entering the rigor state may indicate that the metabolic cost of movement is relatively small, which is consistent with previous studies (; ).

described thehydrogenation of olefinic molecules in the presence of metallic catalyst (),a discovery for which he wins a Nobel Prize in 1912.

Thoms H proposed the denomination "phytosterol" for all sterols ofvegetal origin.

Heise R demonstrated for the first time the presence of mixed glycerides,oleodistearin, in the fat from the kernel of ().


acid synthesis by glycerol-grownMortierella ..

R1 is frequently palmitic acid, R2 being the unsaturated chain (most often ).
A review summarizes recent research defining the mechanism for SQDG biosynthesisand its biological function in higher plants, particularly underphosphate-starved conditions ().

An extract of the marine chloromonad ()was shown to contain a complex mixture of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerols ().

as the precursors for the synthesis of bioactive lipids

The mechanisms by which the animals sense osmotic stress and launch the osmoregulatory response are quite complex. Both disruption of the cuticle and osmotically induced protein damage are believed to induce osmoprotective gene induction. The genes , and several genes are believed to monitor cuticle integrity and to increase glycerol synthesis in response to osmotic stress (). Genome-wide RNAi screening identified 122 genes that suppress the osmotic stress response under normal conditions. When inactivated by RNAi, they cause expression of and glycerol accumulation, attenuating further hypertonic protein damage (). Defective insulin/IGF signaling also contributes to hypertonic stress resistance by increasing the intracellular level of trehalose and activating genes that protect against, or repair, osmotic stress-induced protein damage ().

of a glycerol backbone to which 3 fatty acids ..

Thus, photosynthetic membranes of plants, algae, cyanobacteria, andsome fungi among the Basidiomycetes () contain largeamounts of that sulfolipid.

Glycerolipids - UW-Madison Chemistry

demonstrated that red blood cells are covered by a layer of fatty substances(glycerophospholipids) that is two molecules thick(a bilayer) ().

Hess AF et al.