Friedmann, John. 1986. ‘The World City Hypothesis’, 17: 69-83.

Cities in global matrices: toward mapping the world-system’s city system.

what is the world city hypothesis? | Yahoo Answers

DURING the last twenty years, the concept of world or global cities has provided an intellectual framework that links urbanization to political economy. Beginning as an ‘hypothesis’ or an ‘agenda for action’ (Friedmann and Wolff 1982; Friedmann 1986), the global cities approach rests on a core-periphery model that allows linkages with world systems theory and the radical critiques of dependency theorists while retaining a robustness that preserves its relevance within a period of hegemonic neoliberalism.

Specification of the world city network. Geogr Anal , 33(2): 181-194 doi:

The world city hypothesis and Zhajiang Delta cities

The examination of Bangalore’s economic structure in the early 1990s demonstrates that the city resembled Silicon Valley less than it did a classic Marshallian industrial district, a situation identified by Markussen and her associates as typical of the second tier city (Markussen et al. 1999). The formal economy still revolved around a number of large public sector enterprises that were increasingly oriented toward projects involving transnational corporations.

Walker,“Measurement of the world city network.” 39(13): 2367-2376.2002a.

“We have to find a different way but that’s where we are all stuck – what is the different way.” (Sunita Narain)
making a world class city...

In 1949, he finally gets US citizenship; as a specialist in the oil, he travels around the world.


John Friedmann, “The World City Hypothesis,” 1986

A discussion of cities in terms of a configuration of cities that are connected with each other and with an economic and political order (the world system) has its merits.

The world city hypothesis. (1986 edition) | Open Library

will affect in determinate ways the economic, social, spatial and political structure of world cities and the urbanizing processes to which they are subject’ (1982: 313).

The World City Hypothesis, Development and Change | …

This, in turn,suggests a research agenda the objectives of which range from describing thestructure of a world network of cities, to identifying and explaininghierarchical relations among world cities, to understanding the “nesting” ofthe world city network into the broader world-system, to analyzing theconnections between particular cities’ places in the global hierarchy andsocial relations within them.

Globalization and the world city hypothesis - …

The world system of production and markets is regarded as articulated spatially through a global network of cities, so-called world cities (Friedmann and Wolff, 1982: 309).

SAGE Navigator - The World City Hypothesis

The form and extent of a city’s integration with the world economy, and the functions assigned to the city in the new spatial division of labour, will be decisivefor any structural changes occurring within it.

The World-System’s City System: A Research Agenda

as opposed tosimply reporting presence or absence of a tie) (see White, 1989).But nodal centrality is obviously relevantto understanding world city systems: the key role of world cities as “junctionsof flows” (Harris 1994) should be strongly related to a place's ability tocontrol and broker various types of international exchanges, to serve as asource of information and capital flow, and to act as a magnet for certaintypes of migrants or high technology.