In synthesis, the modulator controls the frequency of the carrier.

The FM Investigator utility performs simple FM synthesis using three oscillators.

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In this form, the values for frqRad*carFrequency and frqRad*modAmp are loop invariant and can be calculated once. Thus, instead of calculating the carrier phase increment repeatedly on each sample, we simply add the modulator value to the carrier phase.

ADDITIVE SYNTHESIS; AMPLITUDE MODULATION; FREQUENCY ..

Simple Synthesis: Part 10, Frequency Modulation | …

Try experimenting with the frequency of the modulator and the frequency of thecarrier. How do they sound when they are close together? Far apart? How do theysound when one is a multiple of the other? When the modulator goes below 20Hz?

Notice that the previous image contains only two peaks, and neither occurs at the frequency of the carrier or the modulator. If the modulator is bipolar, meaning thatit contains both positive and negative numbers, then the carrier signal isactually eliminated from the generated sound. This is a special case of amplitude modulationcalled ring modulation. If the modulator is unipolar, meaning that it containsonly positive or only negative numbers, then the carrier frequency is preserved inthe generated sound.


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With modern LNBF the error between same model parts is about 30 ppm which results in beat frequencies of ~100 KHz at the 10 GHz of the mixers. With this kind of front-end there are no nulls but the fringe modulation can still be read out as variations in count of histogram bins that contain the beat frequency (in the total power fft). This intensity measurement proxy traces out the the envelope of the fringes and varies as a sinc function of distance between antenna. Knowing this and the distance can give you high angular diameter and position measurements of very bright radio sources.

This is the output from a simple frequency-modulation synthesis patch

alto clef – the symbol on a music staff indicating that the third line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of middle C. It is one of five and is used primarily for writing music for the viola. Also called a .

AM – .

AM band – see .

ambience – (1) The sound that comes from the surrounding environment as opposed to coming directly from the sound source. (2) . See also . Not to be confused with , which means the atmosphere or mood of a particular environment.

ambience extraction – a method of removing information from a two-channel and using it to created . David Hafler developed one of the early systems of ambience extraction in the early 1960s, with a process he called Dynaquad, marketed by Hafler's company, . A few years later, Peter Scheiber patented a similar system that competed with in the early 1970s. cited several of Scheiber's patents when it developed the system. Also called , and .

ambience synthesis – a method of digitally synthesizing from information in a two-channel . Although similar in concept to , it uses digital technology and handles the data differently.

ambience track – the of the sets and locations in which a scene was shot recorded by the to be used in the final mix of a or production, used to make sure the background noise is consistent, without any unnatural changes.

ambient – (1) Pertainging to the surrounding environment. (2) A type of instrumental music designed to enhance the mood or atmosphere or induce calmness.

ambient audio – see .

ambient field – the area away from the sound source where the are greater than at the sound source. Also called .

ambient miking – placing a at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . Sometimes spelled . See also .

ambient microphone – a placed at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . This sound is often mixed with a mic close to the source (called a or ) to add , , or special effects or to improve . Sometimes called a , or for short.

ambient noise – see .

ambient sound – the that are present in a scene or , such as wind, water, crowds, and traffic. Ambient sounds are important in and work because they provide audio continuity between shots, they prevent unnatural silence when there is no other sound, and they can be used to establish a mood. Also called , or . See also .

ambient sound level – the due to at a given location, usually measured in dB relative to a reference pressure of 20 μPa (the ). The ambient sound level is measured with a , frequently using , in which case the measurements are specified in . Also called , or .

ambiophony – see .

Ambisonics – various recording and playback techniques, developed in the UK in the 1970s by the British , that use technology to create a variety of effects. The sound data can be and to produce a 2-dimensional (horizontal-only) or 3-dimensional (full-sphere) sound field. Unlike other surround sound formats, Ambisonics is not encoded into signals for specific , but contains representations of the sound field, called the B-format (see ), that includes source directions instead of speaker positions. This technique allows for the signal to be decoded specifically for the speaker setup at a given location or venue, allowing for a considerable amount of flexibility in the number of speakers and their position. Until recently Ambisonics has not been much of a commercial success, but with the advent of more powerful (as opposed to the used in the early years), interest in Ambisonics hs been increasing since the 1990s. See also .

AM broadcaster – a company or that its on the .

AM broadcasting – the of using .

American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) – a non-profit trade organization serving the independent music community by representing their interests in the marketplace, in the media, and in government affairs.

American Broadcasting Company (ABC) – a commercial US headquartered in New York City, NY, and owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. ABC originated in 1943 as a network when Edward J. Noble, owner of Life Savers candy and Rexall Drugs, purchased the Blue Network after the FCC ordered to divest its ownership. The following year, Noble acquired the rights to the name American Broadcasting Company and began using the name American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., for the parent corporation. ABC launched its television network in 1948. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. ABC merged with Capital Cities Communications in 1986. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. In 2007, it sold the radio portion of the business to Citadel Broadcasting, becoming almost exclusively a television network.

American Federation of Musicians (AFM) – a union of performing artists and musicians. AFM membership guarantees that musicians will be paid at the minimum rate established by the union (union scale). Signatory companies (those having signed an agreement with AFM) can only hire union musicians and must pay union scale.

American Graphophone Company – a company founded in 1887 and licensed by the Volta Graphophone Company to manufacture the . The was founded in 1889 to sell the products manufactured by the American Graphophone Company. In 1895, the American Graphophone Company merged with the Columbia Phonograph Company, with the former conducting research and manufacturing and the latter managing marketing, sales, and distribution. The American Graphophone Company continued the manufacturer of Columbia products until 1916, when it was reorganized as the Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company.

American Loudspeaker Manufacturers Association (ALMA) – an international trade organization for companies that design, manufacture, sell, and test components and systems.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary standards for products, services, systems, processes, and personnel in the United States. It began as a joint effort to avoid creating conflicting standards when in 1918 six along with the the US departments of commerce, war, and the navy established the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC). In 1928, it became the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966, they reorganized and became the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). The current name was adopted in 1969.

American standard pitch notation – see .

American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) – see .

American Wire Gauge (AWG) – a set of standards used for measuring and specifying non-ferrous wire conductor sizes (diameters), used primarily in the US and Canada. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter. AWG is used only for non-ferrous wire used to conduct electricity, such as copper and aluminum. Steel wire uses a different gauge (the Washburn & Moen Gauge, which is also called the American Steel and Wire Gauge, or Steel Wire Gauge for short). AWG is also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge. Household wiring typically is 12 or 14 gauge, whereas studio and audio wiring is usually in the range of 16 to 22. Some diameters for a sampling of AWG values is shown below:

Frequency modulation synthesis - Revolvy

Be aware that the spectral components for each time subsection may not, and usually will not, be aligned column-wise in the file unless you choose a particular set of boundary samples with a particular choice of threshold. If the time subsections are short enough, there will be no modulation side bands, only the resonance frequencies, and the components will all line up column-wise. If not, you will need to edit the file by hand and make the frequency components line up by removing sideband frequencies. This is the main issue with this contruction. It will take a lot of programming to make this step automated.