Evaluation of the environmental breeder hypothesis.
Social explanations were the least likely to include any evidence from research."
Describe one explanation for schizophrenia
(4 marks) [June 2010]
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Describe the ‘environmental breeder’ (or social causation) hypothesis as an explanation of schizophrenia (4 marks)
Psychology A2 Revision
With Miss Davies
Biological explanation: the dopamine hypothesis
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The environmental breeder hypothesis;
The mechanism by which selenium protects against the toxicity of methylmercury is not known, but the fact that vitamin E and certain antioxidants also decrease methylmercury toxicity (Welsh & Soares, 1976; Welsh, 1979) has prompted the hypothesis that these compounds may diminish methylmercury toxicity by counteracting the damaging effects of the free radicals generated by its breakdown (Ganther, 1978).
Such characteristics are more compatible with an infectious theory and, in fact, a hypothesis that the disease is a form of viral myocarditis has been put forward (He, 1979).
The hypothesis that the process of ..
Research suggests that social class is either a cause of schizophrenia, or at least somehow involved in its development, according to a second possible, explanation: the environmental breeder hypothesis.
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Because child sexual abuse often occurs alongside other possibly confounding variables, such as poor family environment and physical abuse, some scholars argue it is important to control for those variables in studies which measure the effects of sexual abuse. In a 1998 review of related literature, Martin and Fleming, state “The hypothesis advanced in this paper is that, in most cases, the fundamental damage inflicted by child sexual abuse is due to the child’s developing capacities for trust, intimacy, agency and sexuality, and that many of the mental health problems of adult life associated with histories of child sexual abuse are second-order effects.” Other studies have found an independent association of child sexual abuse with adverse psychological outcomes.
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The hypothesis suggests that there are an excess number of dopamine receptors at the post-synaptic membrane (receiving end of the dopamine) of neurones in schizophrenic patients.
This is partly based on a number of studies that look at the effects of drugs on dopamine receptors and behaviour.
Symptoms, Features and Explanations of Schizophrenia …
Some human innovations have dealt with the fate ofenergy channeled through metabolic processes. The development ofweapons, for example, made it possible to focus somatic energy soas to obtain high-energy foods with much greater efficiency. Manbecame a hunter. This may have been the innovation that let prosper and permitted his species to radiateout of the African cradle, pursuing game throughout the tropicsof the Old World (Binford, 1981, p. 296). Similarly, the use ofclothes brought about a conservation of bodily energy that helpedmake possible the conquest of more temperate regions.