Biology test on photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet
Photosynthesis is defined as the formation of carbohydrates inliving plants from water and carbon dioxide (CO2). It is the mostimportant chemical pathway (series of chemical reactions) on ourplanet. Almost all of the biomass on Earth was initially createdby photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis Flashcards | Quizlet
So we can summarize by saying that the photosynthetic plantstrap solar energy to form ATP and NADPH (Light Phase) and thenuse these as the energy source to make carbohydrates and otherbiomolecules from carbon dioxide and water (Dark Phase),simultaneously releasing oxygen in to the atmosphere. Thechemoheterotrophic animals reverse this process by using theoxygen to degrade the energy-rich organic products ofphotosynthesis to CO2 and water in order to generate ATP fortheir own synthesis of biomolecules.
Glycolysis, occurring in the cytosol, breaks glucose into two molecules of pyruvate. So partially oxidizes glucose (C6) into two pyruvate (C3) molecules. The Krebs cycle, which is a catabolic pathway, located in the mitochondrial matrix, converts a derivative of pyruvate (acetyl CoA) into carbon dioxide. In some of the steps of glycolysis and the krebs cycle, dehydrogenase enzymes transfer electrons to NAD+. NADH passes electrons to the electrons transport chain. This chain accepts energized electrons from reduce coenzymes NADH and FADH2. Energized electrons are harvested during glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Those electrons will eventually combine with hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water. The energy released in each step of the chain is used to synthesize ATP by oxidative phophorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for almost 90% of the ATP generated by respiration. About 10% of the ATP generated for each molecule of glucose oxidized to carbon dioxide and water is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation, in which an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate to ADP.
to a variety of energy-rich compounds, ..
The products of respiration (CO2 and HO2) are the raw materials for photosynthesis. Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen, the raw materials for respiration. Chemical elements essential for life are recycled, but energy is not. How do cells harvest chemical energy?
and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds
Environmental scientists recognize that the fundamental source of energy for most life on earth is the sun. Through photosynthesis, plants capture the light and convert it into chemical potential energy. Plants then store the potential energy in the form of (biological matter that fuels nearly every animal on earth).
Can artificial photosynthesis solve our energy and …
Researchers are currently investigating photo-bioelectrochemical systems (photo-BES, often known as ), which use photosynthesis to convert sunlight into electricity. One method, called the plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) uses a symbiotic relationship between plants and microbes to produce power. The plants convert sunlight into energy-rich compounds, which can be passed to soil bacteria. The bacteria consume these compounds to release electrical charge which passes into a circuit through an electrode, forming an electrical current. Another form of photo-BES, called , uses photosynthetic microorganisms such as algae, to convert sunlight into electrical charge. This cuts out the middleman by removing the need for soil bacteria, thus making the connection between solar energy and the creation of electricity more direct.
Can artificial photosynthesis solve our energy and climate problems
The catabolic pathways of glycolysis and respiration capture the chemical energy in glucose and other fuels and store it in ATP. Glycolysis, occurring in the cytosol, produces ATP, pyruvate, and NADH; the later two, may then enter the mitochondria for respiration. A mitochondrion consists of a matrix in which the enzymes of the krebs cycle are localized, a highly folded inner membrane (cristae) in which enzymes and the molecules of the electron transport chain (ETC) are embedded, and an intermembrane space between the two membranes, to temporarily house H+ that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the ETC (a proton motive force (the definition is given below in the text) drives oxidative phosphorylation as protons move back through ATP synthases located in the membrane).
Can artificial photosynthesis solve our ..
Most of the energyreleased both by the burning of fossil fuels and by the metabolism ofliving cells is given off as heat and must be replaced by thecontinued input of radiant energy from the Sun.The principal organic products of plant photosynthesis arecarbohydrates.