Fundamentals Handbook - Chemistry Volume 2 of 2 ..
Radiation chemistry is a subdivision of which is the study of the chemical effects of radiation on matter; this is very different to as no radioactivity needs to be present in the material which is being chemically changed by the radiation. An example is the conversion of water into gas and .
Basic cellular processes leading to protein synthesis are described
Hart and Setlow found that both the rate and extent of unscheduled DNA synthesis after UV irradiation of fibroblasts increases with the life-span of the of the species.(5) This model assumes that UV radiation effectively mimics normal wear and tear in cellular DNA. Hart and Setlow cautioned that there is more to aging than just the failure of an excision-repair system for dimmers. (5) Nevertheless, these tests show that error free DNA repair is essential for species with long life spans.
Both of these species are very reactive chemically, and there are several reaction pathways available to each. Some of these mechanisms are very complex and are usually of little practical value to the reactor operator, who is more concerned with the overall, observable effects. In the case of water, the overall effect of irradiation is shown in the following reaction.
As reactor coolant water passes through the core region of an operating reactor, it is exposed to intense radiation. The major components of the radiation field are neutrons, protons, gamma rays, and high energy electrons (beta particles). These types of radiation interact with the coolant water primarily by an ionization process and have a marked effect on the water itself and on the chemical reactions between substances dissolved in the water. This section discusses these effects, and in particular the effects that involve gases dissolved in reactor coolant.
Radiation Physics and Chemistry - Journal - Elsevier
Radiation synthesis is a process that takes place in the reactor coolant system. This phenomenon is limited to the reactor coolant system because of the high flux (radiation) levels that exist in the core region and further complicate chemistry control of the reactor plant.
that they focus on radiation effects or applications of ..
Evidence indicates that aging is coupled to a gradual accumulation of errors in DNA that arise due to strand breakage, DNA replication errors, or dysfunctional DNA repair mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical to consider factors that adversely impact DNA and explore the effect of removing them from the cellular environment. Although low-level solar radiation is the most pervasive mutagen known to adversely affect DNA, deuterium oxide is also pervasive and known to adversely affect DNA. Deuterium oxide is present in the Earths surface waters at concentration of 155 parts per million (ppm). At this low level it is generally thought to have no effect. However, over long periods of time low levels of deuterium could play a role, especially when coupled with radiation and other mutagens that lead to DNA damage. New research indicates that although largely ignored, deuterium oxide may play a key role in the aging process.
IONISING RADIATION - photobiology
It uses electromagnetic radiation that passes through material and causes oscillation of molecule which produces heat. Microwave heating produces heat in the entire material in the same rate and at the same time at the high speed and at the high rate of reaction. 6 Microwave assisted synthesis has become an important tool to the chemist for rapid organic synthesis. 7 Microwave heating is instantaneous and very specific and there is no contact required between energy source and reaction vessel. Microwave dielectric heating is a non quantum mechanical effect and it leads to volumetric heating of the sample. 8 The basic principle behind heating in microwave oven is due to interaction of charged particle of the reaction material with electromagnetic wavelength of particular frequency.