Effects of Alcohol Essay; Effects of ..
The bottle garden is a close relative of the biosphere: a tiny garden growing inside abottle, a glass sphere, or a demijohn. The main difference is that soil is the maincomponent not water. The container can be kept sealed or opened like a terrarium. Ourswill be more for just plants whereas the terrarium may have animals. These gardens in abottle, can be cured and perfected as a system, they are also very decorative, in fact youcan treat them as a bonsai with not only a single tree, but whole landscapes. A carefullychosen stone becomes a rock, a small plot of moss represents a great prairie. A contorted,little plant is now a hundred year old tree. Maybe a marsh wetlands with peat moss,mushrooms and ferns is more to your liking. Maybe appropriate succulent plants with sandand rocks for a vast desert landscape. The choice is yours. There is no rigid rule aboutbeing either an open or a closed garden. It maybe useful to keep the lid on to retainwater. Or eventually, the plants grow up and need to hang down the outside.
If the container is always sealed, the challenge becomes quite demanding. In fact, it thenis necessary to obtain an equilibrium between plants and animals in order to keep aneffective cycle of substances and energy, but if this is difficult in a predominantlywater environment, it is even more difficult in a just moist environment. So, the gardenhas to contain a moist soil, plants, little animals like terrestrial isopods (i.e.: sowbug, pill bug), earthworms, etc. Plants have to be resistant to high moisture and have asmall size and limited growth. To avoid roots rotten, you can also try to refer tohydroponics and substitute the ground with small sized expanded clay or with gravel. Inthis case you will have more difficulties in hosting animal species, so it will have to beleft open. It is important you place your garden in a cool and well illuminated place, butaway from direct sunlight. Open or closed, a bottle garden is a fascinating thing, and theidea itself of a little and self-sufficient world is fascinating as well. There are peopleso fond of bottle gardens they work at them a long time, taking care of them using longand thin tools and to observe these environments till they imagine to be one of theirinhabitants.
Then choose among these main options:
1 - Opened bottle garden, containing moist ground, plants and possible little animals. Itis suited for people who love taking care of gardens and who have a flair for
the architecture of little wide spaces.
2 - Opened bottle garden, prepared in hydroponics and containing plants. It is suited forthose who tend to forget to water their plants.
3 - Sealed bottle garden, holding moist soil, plants, and some little animals. Thisexercise is suitable for people who are keen on biology and scientific research. They willhave to find appropriate plants and animals suitable for a sealed ecosystem and will haveto achieve the necessary conditions for a long survival. This research, bibliographic inpart and experimental, will keep students happily busy for long time.
The educational value of these little ecosystems is evident. They can be carried out evenin a school, where the teacher will be allowed to illustrate their characteristics topupils and encourage interesting discussions. In the web sites below, you will findimportant practical information in building your bottle gardens.
Terrariums : Miniature Worlds in a Bottle!
BBC online, how to gardening, bottle garden
Un jardin en bouteille
Le terrarium : Un monde miniature dans une bouteille!
Internet keywords: garden bottle jar, jardin bouteille bonbonne.
effect on leaf photosynthesis of ..
We are fascinated by the diversity of effects that ligands can have to instigate new properties in transition metal complexes and we are therefore strongly interested in designing and developing new ligands that impart specific properties to the metal center. One of these ligands are triazolylidenes, a mesoionic carbene that we discovered in 2008. This ligand offers various opportunities for catalysis, including strong electron donor properties, a high synthetic flexibility that allows for a wide variety of functional and chelating groups to be incorporated, and a high polarity, which imparts solubility in water and other polar media. We have obtained evidence in a variety of catalytic reactions like nickel-catalysed hydrosilylation, ruthenium-catalyzed alcohol dehydrogenation, or iridium-catalyzed water oxidation, that the triazolylidene ligand scaffold is controlling the reactivity of the coordinated metal center. Because of the synthetic versatility and the easy accessibility of the ligand, tailoring of the ligand properties is straightforward and we have disclosed improved catalytic activity by ligand tuning. More recently, we have discovered a straightforward approach to functionalize the ligand on the complex as opposed to the more traditional approach of preparing a functional ligand and only then install the metal center. This approach gives rapid access to a large diversity of functionalized ligands in a very last step, and to ligand scaffolds that are not accessible by traditional routes.
I have obtained my undergraduate education from the University of Bern from 1991 to 1996 and subsequently moved to the Netherlands for graduate studies under the supervison of Gerard van Koten at Utrecht University. In a truly fantastic research environment I completed my PhD thesis in 2000 on the development of new sensors, switches, and catalysts derived from late transition metal pincer complexes. The thesis was later awarded the Bakker price from the Royal Dutch Society of Chemistry. I then joined the group of Robert H. Crabtree at Yale as postdoctoral fellow, working on carbene ligands for bond activation, which was a hugely influential period in terms of chemistry and beyond. In mid 2002, I relocated back to Europe and was employed by Ciba SC (Basel, Switzerland) as a postdoctoral researcher working on nanoparticles for coating effects in an industrial environment. In 2003, I returned to academia and launched my independent research as an Alfred Werner Assistant Professor at the University of Fribourg (Switzerland). During that time, I have also been a visiting professor with Sally Brooker at Otago University (New Zealand), and I received an ERC Starting Grant. In 2009, I join the faculty at University College Dublin as full professor. The Dublin time stood out for the many great colleagues I met, the modern infrastructure, and above all the enthusiastic and dedicated research team that our group has become. Our research achievements have been recognized during that period by a Humboldt research award (Bessel Fellowship), by a distinction from the Catalysis Society of South Africa (CATSA eminent visitor), and by an ERC Consolidator Grant. In 2014, I accepted a call from my alma mater and since summer 2015 , I am back in Switzerland as Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. I am fortunate enough that the entire research team joined me in relocating to Bern, where we have brand new labs that suit us perfectly. Throughout these years and to date, I have been privileged and proud to have been part of a fantastic research team, and to have been supported (and challenged) by most inspiring collaborators around the globe.
Outside my chemistry life, I enjoy family life, spending time in the mountains, all types of sports activities, and traveling to meet colleagues and friends.