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How does a plant grow before photosynthesis is possible?

Photosynthesis converts these energy- depleted compounds (ADPand NADP+) back to the high energy forms (ATP and NADPH) and theenergy thus produced in this chemical form is utilized to drivethe chemical reactions necessary for synthesis of sugars andother carbon containing compounds (e.g., proteins, fats). Theproduction of high energy ATP and NADPH in plants occurs in whatis known as Light Phase Reactions (Z Scheme) (requiressunlight). The energy releasing reactions which converts themback to energy-depleted ADP and NADP is known as Dark PhaseReactions (Calvin Cycle) (does not require light) in whichthe synthesis of glucose and other carbohydrates occurs.

How does a plant grow before photosynthesis is possible

So we can summarize by saying that the photosynthetic plantstrap solar energy to form ATP and NADPH (Light Phase) and thenuse these as the energy source to make carbohydrates and otherbiomolecules from carbon dioxide and water (Dark Phase),simultaneously releasing oxygen in to the atmosphere. Thechemoheterotrophic animals reverse this process by using theoxygen to degrade the energy-rich organic products ofphotosynthesis to CO2 and water in order to generate ATP fortheir own synthesis of biomolecules.

As was discussed in detail in a previous lecture, the plant requiressunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients, and through photosynthesisthe plant produces reduced carbon compounds and oxygen.


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Energy conversion, ATP synthesis and the production of both CO2 and hydrogen on the other hand, are not unique to photosynthetic organisms, but occur in all types of microorganisms, and are in fact similar to the respiratory processes which occur in mitochondria of higher organisms.

Does photosynthesis require carbon dioxide?

During photosynthesis, the energy from the sun splits the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen molecules are given off by the plant and emitted into the atmosphere. Molecules of ATP are created within the plant cell. These reactions are called or because they require light to occur.

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For each electron flowing from water to NADP+ (a net change in1.14 volts), two quanta of light are absorbed, one by eachPhotosystem. Each molecule of oxygen released involves the flowof four electrons from two water molecules to two NADP+s andrequires four quanta of sunlight absorbed by each Photosystem toprovide the energy to do this. These are the "Light PhaseReactions" of photosynthesis, which produce two high energychemical products, namely NADPH and ATP.

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Plants make their own food by photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide and water react together in the presence of light and chlorophyll to make glucose and oxygen. The glucose is converted into starch, fats and oils for storage. It is used to make cellulose for cell walls, and proteins for growth and repair. It is also used by the plant to release energy by respiration.

How does photosynthesis go about nourishing the entire living world

Now what are the "Dark Phase Reactions" (aka CalvinCycle)? This is the cycle that converts CO2 into glucose. Sinceit utilizes the chemical energy in the ATP and NADPH, it does notrequire sunlight (hence the name). It is a complex cycle ofmostly phosphorylation (adding or removing phosphate) andoxidative (electron removal) chemical reactions whereby 6molecules of CO2 are converted into one molecule of glucose. Itrequires the energy-releasing cleavage of high energy bonds of 18ATPs and 12 NADPHs . The resulting 18 ADPs and 12 NADP+s are thenrestored by the Light Phase process to their high energy forms(ATP and NADPH).