situational and dispositional influences on behavior

  Stress, Appraisal, Coping, Gender, Dispositional hypothesis, Situational hypothesis

Dispositional Hypothesis Definition Free Essays - …

Bridging justice and emotional labour via affective events theory one class of affective events includes situations where, individuals feel they are treated unfairly. For example, as well as have presented empirical evidence showing that individuals experience anger when treated unfairly and happiness when treated fairly. and also provide evidence that anger is a common consequence of injustice perceptions. The current study seeks to extend this research by exploring how situations involving interactional mistreatment by customers serve as affective events.

The hypothesis that states there is a difference between two or more sets of data.

Situational & Dispositional Factors 2012.

4. Eschelman, K. J., Bolwing, N. A., & Judge, T. A. (2015). The dispositional basis of attitudes: A replication and extension of Hepler and Albarracin (2013). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(5), e1-e15.

The hypothesis that states there is a difference between two or more sets of data.

This section begins by looking at culture in small groups, with examples from classic social psychological experiments of how group pressures can influence (and thus shape culturally) such phenomena as beliefs about the natural world (for example, assessments of the length of a line) or deeply held moral values (for example, against inflicting pain). Small groups both produce culture (as in minimal-group experiments, where randomly assigned groups create elaborate beliefs about themselves and others based on trivial cues) and reflect it (as in research experiments demonstrating how cultural stereotypes shape the interpretation of behavior of members of a task group). Examples are considered that show how culture arises from situational contexts, how it changes, and how it influences human behavior.

a. Historical and contemporary examples  b. Weaknesses of kinship-based systems

the “dispositional hypothesis” of why ..

In addition to its association with disease directly, dispositional optimism has been related to other routes to biological endpoints, including the use of more active and problem-focused coping strategies (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989; Taylor et al., 1992), greater psychological well-being, and better health habits (e.g., Park, Moore, Turner, & Adler, 1997; see Scheier & Carver, 1992, for a review).

“The first was the dispositional hypothesis ..

proposed that an individual could engage in response-focused emotion regulation, or response modulation. In this process, the person has a tendency toward an emotional response, but manipulates how he or she shows that emotional response by "directly influencing physiological, experiential, or behavioural responding". Rather than adjusting the situation or the perception of the situation, the individual manipulates the emotional expression of his or her reaction to the situation. This could be done with exercise or drugs that induce the appropriate state. An individual may also adjust the intensity of the displayed emotion, or fake the expression entirely. Response-focused emotion regulation corresponds with the process of surface acting. The job environment or a particular work event may induce an emotion response in the employee (e.g., anger, sadness, anxiety) and behaviours may follow that would be inappropriate for the encounter (e.g., verbal attack, crying, complaining). Generally, individuals experience a physiological state of arousal or emotion (anger or fear) and they then have an emotional tendency (attack or flee). This corresponds with idea of action readiness and idea that emotions provide clues about the environment. The arousal state from emotions informs them and gets them in a bodily state to respond to the situation. But in today's society, people learn to regulate that emotional tendency, so that their emotional reactions to other people don't result in "fight or flight" (). So, these action tendencies to respond to emotion-producing stimuli are overridden by coping or regulatory processes so that people do not act inappropriately in social settings ().

this would support the dispositional hypothesis, ..

The theory that argues people look for explanation of behavior, associating either dispositional (internal) attributes or situational (external) attributes.

situational and dispositional hypothesis ..

In order to show the appropriate emotion for a situation, sometimes individuals must inhibit or suppress feelings. Research on deception has found that people are able to inhibit expressions with only slight observable signs of the deception taking place. However, this regulation for the social interaction may tax the system. Inhibiting feelings and emotional expression lowers behavioural activity, but has actually been found to increase autonomic nervous system activity (). Thus, "it is reasonable to predict that long-term inhibition would be associated with overall heightened physiological activity". This physiological activity, or "bottling up" of emotions, taxes the body over time by overworking the cardiovascular and nervous systems and weakening the immune system. As evidence of this process, research has linked the inhibition of emotions to a variety of physical illness, including higher and cancer (; ; ; ). In fact, inability to express negative emotion is one of the strongest predictors of cancer (; ).