Importance of dimethyl fumarate in the treatment of ..
An orally bioavailable methyl ester of fumaric acid and activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2 (Nrf2, Nfe2l2), with potential neuroprotective, immunomodulating and radiosensitizing activities. Although the exact mechanism of action through which dimethyl fumarate exerts its neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects have yet to be fully understood, upon oral administration, dimethyl fumarate is converted into its active metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) and MMF binds to Nrf2. Subsequently, Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE). This induces the expression of a number of cytoprotective genes, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), sulfiredoxin 1 (Srxn1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO1, HMOX1), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (Gclc) and glutamate-cysteine ligase regulatory subunit (Gclm); this also increases the synthesis of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The intraneuronal synthesis of GSH may protect neuronal cells from damage due to oxidative stress. Dimethyl fumarate also appears to inhibit the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated pathway, modulates the production of certain cytokines and induces apoptosis in certain T-cell subsets. Its radiosensitizing activity is due to this agent's ability to bind to and sequester intracellular GSH, thereby depleting intracellular GSH and preventing its anti-oxidative effects. This enhances the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation in hypoxic cancer cells. Nrf2, a leucine zipper transcription factor, plays a key role in redox homeostasis and cytoprotection against oxidative stress.
Dimethyl Fumarate 624-49-7 | TCI Chemicals (India) Pvt. …
Recent reports have shown that dimethyl fumarate (DMF) prevents brain damage induced by intracerebral hemorrhage and this beneficial effect is mediated by the nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2–antioxidant response element (Nrf2–ARE) pathway. However, the downstream mechanism underlying the activation of the Nrf2–ARE pathway is unclear. Here, we investigated the protective effect of DMF using an model of oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and rat primary striatal cultures. Oral administration of DMF prevented SNP-induced motor dysfunction. Pre-administration of DMF (60–200 mg/kg) for 24 h dose-dependently protected against brain damage induced by the striatal injection of SNP. Next, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of DMF against oxidative stress using rat primary striatal cell cultures. Treatment of striatal cells with DMF (10 µM) markedly prevented hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. The protective effect of DMF against oxidative stress was inhibited by zinc protoporphyrin IX, an inhibitor of heme oxygenase-1, but not by buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. These results suggest that the activation of heme oxygenase-1 plays an important role in the protective effect of DMF.
It is also important to promote the development of new therapies, with more studies on other substances such as acrolein, lipoic acid and dimethyl fumarate.