Methods - Synthesis & Techniques

Designing Organic Syntheses: A Programmed Introduction to the ..

Norbert Stock has received his Ph.D. degree in chemistry with Prof. Schnick in 1998 at the University of Bayreuth and has spent the next 15 months as a postdoc in the groups of Prof. Ferey, Prof. Cheetham, and Prof. Stucky at the University of Versailles and University of California at Santa Barbara. In 2000, he joined the group of Prof. Bein at the Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich, where he finished his habilitation in 2004. In the same year, he became Professor at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry at the Christian-Albrechts-University in Kiel. His research interests are within the field of inorganic–organic hybrid compounds. He has been involved in the development and application of high-throughput methods for reactions under solvothermal conditions. Thus, he is interested in the discovery of new hybrid compounds, in understanding their formation, as well as in setting up synthesis–structure relationships.

Teaches the student to design organic syntheses for ..

Barry M. Trost was born in Philadelphia, PA, in 1941. He began his university training at the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1962). He obtained a Ph.D. degree in chemistry at MIT (1965) and directly moved to the University of Wisconsin, where he was promoted to Professor in 1969 and Vilas Research Professor in 1982. In 1987, he joined the faculty at Stanford, where he is the Tamaki Professor of Humanities and Sciences. In 1994, he was presented with a of the Université Claude-Bernard (Lyon I), France. His research interests revolve around the theme of selectivity, developing new reactions and reagents that are chemo-, regio-, diastereo-, and enantioselective and new synthetic strategies for the total synthesis of bioactive and novel molecules. In recognition of his many contributions, he has received a number of awards, including the ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1977), ACS Award for Creative Work in Synthetic Organic Chemistry (1981), Baekeland Award (1981), Arthur C. Cope Scholar Award (1989), Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Essential Oils and Related Products (1990), Dr. Paul Janssen Prize (1990), ASSU Graduate Teaching Award (1991), Bing Teaching Award (1993), and ACS Roger Adams Award (1995). He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Sciences (1982) and a member of the National Academy of Sciences (1980). He coordinates the ACS course “Frontiers in Organic Chemistry”. He edited a major compendium entitled consisting of nine volumes and serves as Editor for .

Everyone who works within the field of catalysis draws inspiration from the amazing functionality of nature’s catalysts, the enzymes. It is particularly the mild conditions that these catalysts are able to operate at and the selectivity that they demonstrate that make these materials dream targets for scientists involved in the art of synthesizing homogeneous and heterogeneous industrial catalysts. But enzymes also have their weak points; in particular their low thermal stability and their often too slow reaction rates for an economical industrial process are problems that have to be overcome. The obvious solution would be to copy the catalytic active center into a robust open framework. A key property of an enzyme is its selectivity; this property is partly regulated by steric constraints surrounding the catalytically active site. The microporous zeolite based catalysts in some cases show impressive selectivity based on the geometrical constraints imposed by the size and shape of the regular channels in these crystalline silicate and alumino-phosphate based structures, and enzyme-like properties have been claimed but the pure inorganic nature of the selective internal surface in these materials makes it impossible to mimic many important enzymatic properties. The new generation of microporous materials, Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are hybrids of organic and inorganic structures. This dualistic nature offers an unprecedented flexibility in the possibility to incorporate both organic and metallic functional groups into the ordered crystalline lattice and thereby opening up for a much greater possibility to copy structural motifs known from enzymes into much simpler but also more stable open structures. Several groups are working on development of new catalysts by this approach. Here we will illustrate this approach with structures that mimic anhydrase and C–H activation.