Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules | Boundless …
Neutral fats are produced by the dehydration synthesis of one or more fatty acids with an alcohol like glycerol. Many types of neutral fats are possible both because of the number and variety of fatty acids that could form part of it and because of the different bonding locations for the . An example is a monoglyceride that has one fatty acid combined with glycerol, a diglyceride has two, and a triglyceride has three. Neutral fats are usually found in the thigh and torso area of the body as padding and insulation to keep warm.
Synthesis of Biological Macromolecules
ß1,4 Galactosyltransferase is unique among all glycosyltransferases in that its substrate specificity can be modified by addition of -lactalbumin. Together, ß1,4 galactosyltransferase and -lactalbumin form the lactose synthase complex. Because -lactalbumin is only expressed in the mammary gland, lactose synthesis only occurs in the mammary gland. In addition, expression of the -lactalbumin gene is closely regulated by hormones, so that lactose synthesis only occurs during the lactating state of the tissue.
ß1,4 Galactosyltransferase (GT) is the enzymatic subunit of lactose synthase. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight varying from 35-60 kDa, depending upon the amount of glycosylation and the degree of proteolytic degradation. ß1,4 Galactosyltransferase in milk is proteolytically clipped removing the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. The GT found in milk has a molecular weight of 35-45 kDa. Without the presence of -lactalbumin, the enzyme functions in the Golgi during glycoprotein biosynthesis to add galactose to oligosaccharides with terminal -acetylglucosamine residues in a ß1-->4 linkage. The GT transfers galactose from the donor, UDP-galactose, to the terminal -acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) acceptor on the oligosaccharise complex of glycosylated proteins. Galactosyltransferase is found in most tissues of the body. It is only found on the inner surface of the Golgi apparatus.
[Effect of dehydration on lipid metabolism].
The lactose synthesis pathway is shown in the figure below. The following points are relevant to this figure (as indicated by the numbers on the figure; see below the figure for the legend of abbreviations):
[Effect of dehydration on lipid metabolism]
1) What is the difference between dehydration and hydrolysis?
2) What are the two categories of minerals?
3) What is a macronutrient?
4) What is a disaccharide?
Testing for Nutrients
Starch- Using iodine
-If iodine turns black/blue starch is present
Simple Sugars- Using Benedict's solution
- if it turns red, simple sugars are present
Fats/Lipids- using paper towel
-if liquid dries up, no fat is present
Protein- Nitric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide in a hot water bath
-if it turns yellow if protein is present
Dehydration reaction | definition of dehydration …
Amino acids bond together to form disaccharides (chains of 2amino acids) and polysaccharides (chains of many amino acids).They also bond using dehydration synthesisbecause they release a water molecule in the process, and polysaccharides canbe broken into individual amino acids by adding water in hydrolysis.