What are some examples of monomers and polymers
One type of lipid monomer, a , consists of one carboxyl group at the end of a linear hydrocarbon containing at least four carbon atoms. Because hydrocarbon chains are nonpolar, fatty acids with long hydrocarbon chains are mainly hydrophobic (insoluble in water) despite having one polar functional group. Unlike other biomolecule groups, fatty acid monomers are not directly bonded to each other in polymer chains. Dehydration synthesis reactions in lipids form an ester linkage between the carboxyl group of a fatty acid and the hydroxyl group of an alcohol monomer such as glycerol. Monomer and polymer structures vary widely depending on the type of lipid, and not all lipid groups contain fatty acids.
but each monomer and polymer reaction is specific for its class
Fats are a class of lipids containing two kinds of monomers, fatty acids and glycerol. Glycerol is a three carbon biomolecule containing three hydroxyl groups, one bonded to each carbon atom. Dehydration synthesis creates an ester linkage between the carboxyl group of fatty acids and a hydroxyl group in glycerol. Most fats are , containing a fatty acid bonded to each of the three hydroxyl groups. and , containing one or two fatty acids respectively, perform important cellular roles but are not a significant component of most living organisms. Although many fats and fatty acids are synthesized directly in cells, some fatty acids must be obtained through dietary intake of fats and are required for proper cellular function.
are a class of lipids that contain two monomers, one fatty acid bonded through an ester linkage to one alcohol (a hydrocarbon containing a hydroxyl group). The hydrocarbon chain in the alcohol monomer of waxes varies from a short linear chain to complex carbon ring structures. Waxes provide protective barriers to prevent water loss and protect cells. Waxes protect seeds and nutrients inside plant fruits and coat the surface of plant leaves, forming a cuticle to prevent water loss. Bees synthesize beeswax honeycombs for storing food and protecting offspring. Waxes prevent dehydration from body surfaces of many insects and repel water on the surface of bird feathers and some animal furs.