rates of fatty acid synthesis ..
N2 - Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are the most prevalent types of primary liver cancer. These malignancies have limited treatment options, resulting in poor patient outcomes. Metabolism reprogramming, including increased de novo lipogenesis, is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids from acetyl-coenzyme A and malonyl-coenzyme A. Increased FASN expression has been reported in multiple tumor types, and inhibition of FASN expression has been shown to have tumor-suppressing activity. Intriguingly, we found that while FASN is up-regulated in human HCC samples, its expression is frequently low in human ICC specimens. Similar results were observed in mouse ICC models induced by different oncogenes. Ablating FASN in the mouse liver did not affect activated AKT and Notch (AKT/Notch intracellular domain 1) induced ICC formation in vivo. Furthermore, while both HCC and ICC lesions develop in mice following hydrodynamic injection of AKT and neuroblastoma Ras viral oncogene homolog oncogenes (AKT/Ras), deletion of FASN in AKT/Ras mice triggered the development almost exclusively of ICCs. In the absence of FASN, ICC cells might receive lipids for membrane synthesis through exogenous fatty acid uptake. In accordance with the latter hypothesis, ICC cells displayed high expression of fatty acid uptake-related proteins and robust long-chain fatty acid uptake. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that FASN dependence is not a universal feature of liver tumors: while HCC development is highly dependent of FASN and its mediated lipogenesis, ICC tumorigenesis can be insensitive to FASN deprivation; our study supports novel therapeutic approaches to treat this pernicious tumor type with the inhibition of exogenous fatty acid uptake. (Hepatology 2016;63:1900-1913).
Fatty acid synthesis - Wikipedia
N2 - Direct measurement of de novo lipogenesis has not previously been possible in humans. We measured de novo hepatic lipogenesis in normal men by means of stable isotopes and by combining the acetylated-xenobiotic probe technique with mass isotopomer analysis of secreted very low density lipoprotein-fatty acids (VLDL-FA). Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was administered with [13C]acetate during an overnight fast followed by refeeding with intravenous glucose (7-10 mg/kg of weight per min), oral Ensure (7-10 mg of carbohydrate/kg of weight per min), or a high-carbohydrate mixed-meal breakfast (3.5 g of carbohydrate/kg of weight). Respiratory quotients remained
AB - Direct measurement of de novo lipogenesis has not previously been possible in humans. We measured de novo hepatic lipogenesis in normal men by means of stable isotopes and by combining the acetylated-xenobiotic probe technique with mass isotopomer analysis of secreted very low density lipoprotein-fatty acids (VLDL-FA). Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) was administered with [13C]acetate during an overnight fast followed by refeeding with intravenous glucose (7-10 mg/kg of weight per min), oral Ensure (7-10 mg of carbohydrate/kg of weight per min), or a high-carbohydrate mixed-meal breakfast (3.5 g of carbohydrate/kg of weight). Respiratory quotients remained
-De novo fatty acid synthesis ..
Much like , elongation occurs via fourrecurring reactions shown below. In these diagrams, the acetyl andmalonyl units are shown as their (ACP) thioesters: this is how fatty acids aresynthesized in microorganisms and plants. However, in animals thesesame reactions occur on a large dimeric protein, , which has the full complement of enzymatic activitiesrequired to synthesize and liberate a free fatty acid.
Adipose tissue de novo lipogenesis - ASBMB
However, in animals these same reactions occur on a large dimeric protein, fatty acid synthase, which has the full complement of enzymatic activities required to synthesize and liberate a free fatty acid.
Fatty Acid Structure and Synthesis - Reference Module …
N2 - Aims/hypothesis: Plasma ceramide concentrations correlate with insulin sensitivity, inflammation and atherosclerotic risk. We hypothesised that plasma ceramide concentrations are increased in the presence of elevated fatty acid levels and are regulated by increased liver serine C-palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity. Methods: Lean humans and rats underwent an acute lipid infusion and plasma ceramide levels were determined. One group of lipid-infused rats was administered myriocin to inhibit SPT activity. Liver SPT activity was determined in lipid-infused rats, and obese, insulin resistant mice. The time and palmitate dose-dependent synthesis of intracellular and secreted ceramide was determined in HepG2 liver cells. Results: Plasma ceramide levels were increased during lipid infusion in humans and rats, and in obese, insulin-resistant mice. The increase in plasma ceramide was not associated with changes in liver SPT activity, and inhibiting SPT activity by ∼50% did not alter plasma ceramide levels in lipid-infused rats. In HepG2 liver cells, palmitate incorporation into extracellular ceramide was both dose- and time-dependent, suggesting the liver cells rapidly secreted the newly synthesised ceramide. Conclusions/ interpretation: Elevated systemic fatty acid availability increased plasma ceramide but this was not associated with changes in hepatic SPT activity, suggesting that liver ceramide synthesis is driven by substrate availability rather than increased SPT activity. This report also provides evidence that the liver is sensitive to the intracellular ceramide concentration, and an increase in liver ceramide secretion may help protect the liver from the deleterious effects of intracellular ceramide accumulation.
Long chain fatty acid synthesis - Tuscany Diet
In humans fatty acids are predominantly formed in the and , and during lactation. Mostacetyl-CoA is formed from by in themitochondria. Acetyl-CoA produced in the mitochondria is condensedwith to form , which is then transported into thecytosol and broken down to yield acetyl-CoA and by .