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14 Days Post Anthesis - Springer Static Content Server 1/2 Additional file 1A

Flowering, Floral Biology and Pollination in Coconut

Sapota requires irrigation at 30 days in summer. Adoption of drip irrigation system is also beneficial, saving 40 % water with 70-75% higher net income. This system should be laid out with 2 drippers spaced 50 cm from tree during initial 2 years and 4 drippers at 1m from tree until 5 years of age. With dripper discharge rate of 4litres /hr, the system should be operated for 4hr during winter and 7hr during summer on alternate days. Under short supply of water, timing could be 3hr and 30minutes in winter and 5hr and 40mintues in summer. Harvesting and post harvest management Sapota takes about 7-101/2 months from anthesis to maturity of fruits depending on variety and climate. Fruits follow double sigmoid pattern of growth. Properly developed fruits have high TSS and sugar, and reduced acidity, astringency, latex and vitamin C. Maturity is decided on the basis of ease with which brown scruff gets off the fruit surface and development of yellowish tinge intermixed wit corky brown color on the surface of the fruit. At this stage, practically no green tissue and milky latex are seen on fruits when scratched with nails. The fruits are hand picked or harvested with special harvester which has a round ring with a net bag fixed onto a long bamboo. Depending on management level, 15-20 tons fruits are harvested from a hectare. Since sapota is a climacteric fruit, it has to be ripening artificially. Fruits are highly perishable and they undergo rapid ripening changes within 5-7days during which the fruits become soft, sweet and develop excellent aroma with decline in tannins, latex sapotin, aldehydes and acidity. These changes are associated with increase in production of ethylene, rate of respiration, catalase, peroxidase and PME activities. These changes can be regulated through chemicals, temperature and storage gas composition. Harvested fruits should be cleaned of latex and scurf by washing in clean water to make them look attractive.

The fibre cell initiation usually occurs from 2–3 days before anthesis to 2–3 days post anthesis (dpa) ..

Flowering, Floral Biology and Pollination in Coconut

Such fruits should be graded into big, medium and small sizes. Fruits should be tightly packed in cardboard boxes of 10 kg capacity with rice straw as padding material and with ethylene absorbents and transported quickly to wholesale markets. For extending shelf life and to avoid storage rots, fruits can be dipped in GA300 ppm + bavistin 1,000ppm solution at pre-packing stage. For uniform and rapid ripening ethephon (1,000ppm) can be utilized at 20`-25`C. Modified storage with 5-10 % (c/c) CO2 can be employed for long storage (21-25days). Refrigerated vans (12-23`C) should be utilized for long distance and export markets. Physiological disorders Wilt or die back is common where sapota cultivation is being extended to traditionally rice growing regions. Due to anaerobic conditions in monsoon and post monsoon season in such areas wilt is of common appearance aggravated by Fusarium spp. This can be controlled by effective drainage facility before planting. The shape of fruit is related with number if seeds init which depend on conditions for pollination at anthesis. High temperature and rainfall during flowering cause oblongation of fruits. Therefore, cultivation of sapota in areas with extreme summer temperature should be avoided. Sometimes fruits do not develop into their normal shape but develop a depression or furrow towards the calyx end. This symptom usually appears immediately after heavy rainfall and is aggravated by high intensity of irrigation. Therefore over irrigation should be avoided. The fruits exposed to intense sunlight do not ripen uniformly, developing corkiness during winter. This is probably due to killing of hydrolyzing enzymes by alternation moisture accumulation and heating of fruit surface in winter. Thus its trees need to grow vigorously.

days post anthesis.

Surprisingly, 14C-pulse-chase analyses indicated that the rate of starch degradation was highest in immature fruit [10 days post anthesis (DPA)] when ...

26/05/1998 · * λmax : maximum absorbance DPA : days post- anthesis ESG : endosperm starch ..