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Avoid the uptake of O2 by rubisco, which would compete with carbon dioxide for the active site on rubisco.
C4 Photosynthesis
C4 plants have a different structure than C3 plants.
Chloroplasts are found in both the mesophyll cells and the bundle sheath cells
the mesophyll cells are arranged concentrically around the bundle sheath cells
the mesophyll cells shield the bundle cells from the oxygen
the Calvin cycle occurs only in the bundle sheath cells
Carbon dioxide is not taken directly from the air
the carbon dioxide is fixed in mesophyll cells producing a C4 molecule.

Schmetterer G (2004) Cyanobacterial respiration. In: Bryant DA (ed) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, pp. 409–435. Dordrecht: Springer.

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Dinoflagellates are found within Alveolata. These are primarily unicellular marine and freshwater organisms. Many dinoflagellates have lost their plastids — the site of photosynthesis — through the course of evolution and are phagotropic or live as parasites. Still other algal species are found distributed amongst Alveolata, Excavata, Rhizaria and Chromista (Current Biology, 2014).

Vermaas WFI (2001) Photosynthesis and Respiration in Cyanobacteria (Encyclopedia of Life Sciences). Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Schultze M, Forberich B, Rexroth S, et al. (2009) Localization of cytochrome b6f complexes implies an incomplete respiratory chain in cytoplasmic membranes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) ‐ Bioenergetics 1787: 1479–1485.

The energy that is harnessed from photosynthesis enters the ecosystems of our planet continuously and is transferred from one organism to another.

Introduction to the Cyanobacteria

Probably the most important contribution of algae to our environment and well-being is the generation of oxygen through photosynthesis. "Algae are indispensable because they produce about half the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere," Graham told LiveScience.

Architects of earth's atmosphere

CAM plants only open their stomata at night.
Partitioning in Space
in the stroma
of chloroplasts
The Calvin cycle begins with a 5-carbon compound known as RuBP.
Carbon fixation: A molecule of carbon dioxide is split releasing oxygen.
The newly formed 6-carbon compound is immediately split into two 3-carbon compounds.
Photosynthetic Organisms
includes plants, algae, and cyanobacteria
Produce an enormous amount of carbohydrate
enough to feed themselves and consumers
food chains can be traced back to plants
How are plants and cars related?
Pigments absorb portions of visible light.
Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b absorb violet, blue, and red wavelengths
Carotenoids absorb light in the violet-blue-green range.

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the carbon dioxide then enters the Calvin cycle.
CAM Photosynthesis
crassulacean-acid metabolism
A type of photosynthesis that occurs in succulent plants
first discovered in the Crassulaceae family of plants
Where C4 plants partition the fixation of carbon dioxide by using space CAM plants partition it by using time.

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Not the yellow or orange range.
The roots of plants absorb water that travels through vascular tissue to the leaves.
Carbon dioxide in the air enters the leaf through small openings called stomata
Carbon Dioxide
The absorption spectrum shows the rate of photosynthesis.