What Is a Scientific Hypothesis? | Definition of Hypothesis
Arriving at a cost-benefit ratio is not simple. For one thing, there is no way to know ahead of time what the effects of a given procedure will be on every person or animal who participates or what benefit to society the research is likely to produce. In addition, what is ethical is defined by the current state of thinking within society, and thus perceived costs and benefits change over time. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services regulations require that all universities receiving funds from the department set up an to determine whether proposed research meets department regulations. The is . The IRB approves the procedures of all the research conducted at the institution before the research can begin. The board may suggest modifications to the procedures, or (in rare cases) it may inform the scientist that the research violates Department of Health and Human Services guidelines and thus cannot be conducted at all.
An Example of How to Write a Hypothesis
The scientific method is limited to those phenomenawhich can be observed or measured. For example, what existed priorto the Big Bang and the known universe is outside of the realm of scienceto investigate.
A scientific hypothesis is the initial building block in the . Many describe it as an "educated guess," based on prior knowledge and observation. While this is true, the definition can be expanded. A hypothesis also includes an explanation of why the guess may be correct, according to National Science Teachers Association.
Two key concepts in the scientific approach are theory and hypothesis
A scientific summarizes a hypothesis or group of hypotheses that have been supported with repeated testing. A theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to dispute it. Therefore, theories can be disproven. Basically, if evidence accumulates to support a hypothesis, then the hypothesis can become accepted as a good explanation of a phenomenon. One definition of a theory is to say it's an .
HYPOTHESIS AND HYPOTHESIS TESTING (Social Science)
A scientific hypothesis makes a testable statement about the observable universe. A statistical hypothesis is more restricted in that it concerns the behavior of a measurable (or observable) random variable. Much of the work that we do is directed toward rephrasing a scientific hypothesis in terms that allow us to construct an appropriate statistical hypothesis. Say that we are concerned with a random variable which falls in a sample space . We can define (at our choosing) a subregion of the sample space, . Since is a random variable whose behavior in is governed by a probability distribution, we can compute the probability that will fall within our subregion (., P(∈)). Any hypothesis concerning P(∈) is a statistical hypothesis.
A good hypothesis needs to be written down
Theory Example: It is known that on June 30, 1908 in Tunguska, Siberia, there was an explosion equivalent to the detonation of about 15 million tons of TNT. Many hypotheses have been proposed for what caused the explosion. It is theorized that the explosion was caused by a natural extraterrestrial phenomenon, and was not caused by man. Is this theory a fact? No. The event is a recorded fact. Is this this theory, generally accepted to be true, based on evidence to-date? Yes. Can this theory be shown to be false and be discarded? Yes.
What Is a Scientific Theory? | Definition of Theory
We will begin our discussion of statistical tests with a brief description of the classical scheme developed by Jerzy Neyman and E.S. Pearson in a series of classic papers published in the 1930's (reviewed by Lehman, 1993). Although this approach is perhaps more appropriate to industrial applications and quality control situations than to science, it is fairly easy to understand at the basic level and includes important concepts that carry over into the somewhat looser approach of that we will follow in this book.
A hypothesis is a tentative, testable answer to a scientific question
Let's say you decide to eat greasy food every day for a week and record the effect on your face. Then, as a control, for the next week you'll avoid greasy food and see what happens. Now, this is not a very because it does not take into account other factors, such as hormone levels, stress, sun exposure, exercise or any number of other variables which might conceivably affect your skin. The problem is that you cannot assign cause to your effect. If you eat french fries for a week and suffer a breakout, can you definitely say it was the grease in the food that caused it? Maybe it was the salt. Maybe it was the potato. Maybe it was unrelated to diet.You can't prove your hypothesis. It's much easier to disprove a hypothesis. So, let's restate the hypothesis to make it easy to evaluate the data.