Synthesis of 2 3-dimethyl-2-butanol

Construct a three-step synthesis of 2-methyl-2-butanol from 3-methyl-2-butanol?
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2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references.
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The Dehydration of 3,3-Dimethyl-2-Butanol.

The synthesis of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol was attempted as indicated below, but 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol was produced.
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Miniscale Synthesis of Alkenes Via the Acid-catalyzed Dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanol ..
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Synthesis of Alkenes 1: Miniscale Synthesis of Alkenes Via the Acid-catalyzed Dehydration of 3,3-dimethyl-2 Exercise C2 Melting Point E1 Refractive Index.
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Construct a three-step synthesis of 2-methyl-2-butanol from 3-methyl-2-butanol
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When the JCL260 ΔilvE ΔtyrB strain expressing the WT leuA gene product was examined for 3-methyl-1-butanol production, the results mimicked those of the strain containing the mutant IPMS. 3-Methyl-1-butanol accumulated to a final concentration of 512 mg/liter, while isobutanol was present at only 42 mg/liter (Fig. ). This corresponds to a product distribution ratio of 3-methyl-1-butanol to isobutanol of greater than 12:1. When the leuAFBR gene was expressed in place of WT leuA, 3-methyl-1-butanol increased further, to 806 mg/liter, while isobutanol production was minimal (Fig. ). The yield for this experiment was estimated to be 0.13 g/g from glucose by subtracting the 3-methyl-1-butanol produced from yeast extract alone (see Fig. ). Increasing the glucose concentration (10 g/liter) and fermentation time (28 h) in this strain led to a final titer of 1.28 g/liter for 3-methyl-1-butanol (Fig. and ), the highest production of 3-methyl-1-butanol reported to our knowledge. The estimated yield was calculated to be 0.11 g/g. Isobutanol accumulated to less than 0.2 g/liter.

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With an increased production of KIC, the entire pathway for 3-methyl-1-butanol production from pyruvate was transformed using either WT leuA or leuAFBR. Similar to the results seen for keto-acid production, the strain expressing WT leuA still produced a significant amount of isobutanol (168 mg/liter) in a JCL260 ilvE+ tyrB+ background, although 3-methyl-1-butanol was the main product (286 mg/liter) (Fig. ). As expected, when leuAFBR was expressed in the JCL260 ilvE+ tyrB+ background, 3-methyl-1-butanol was the main product, with a final titer of 425 mg/liter, with isobutanol accumulating to only 15 mg/liter (Fig. ). The removal of feedback inhibition of IPMS by mutation changed the product distribution from 1.7:1 (3-methyl-1-butanol:isobutanol) using WT leuA to greater than 28:1. Accumulation of other common metabolic by-products including acetate and succinate is shown in Table .

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This work demonstrates that the main bottleneck to 3-methyl-1-butanol production in E. coli is due to feedback inhibition of the leuA gene product by free leucine. The elimination of the leucine synthesis genes ilvE and tyrB led to an increased production of KIC using WT leuA with a synthetic RBS. Expression of leuAFBR resulted in a further increase in the production of KIC and 3-methyl-1-butanol in the JCL260 ΔilvE ΔtyrB background. Production of KIC was not detected in any strains expressing WT leuABCD with its natural RBS. This is most likely due to the low expression level of leuA, which may lead to inhibition of IPMS by low levels of free leucine contained in the yeast extract. All strains expressing WT leuABCD with the synthetic RBS were able to synthesize KIC, suggesting that the increased expression level of leuA was sufficient to overcome complete inhibition of IPMS by leucine contained in the yeast extract.