Compare the end products of DNA replication and protein synthesis
DNA methylation is a postreplicative modification that occurs when a methyl (-CH3) group is added at position 5 of the cytosine pyrimidine ring and “establishes a silent chromatin state by collaborating with proteins that modify nucleosomes.” (Rudolf Jaenisch, 2003)....
Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis ..
Information would start to be lost.
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Consist of a short, repeating DNA sequence
Vertebrate Telomere: TTAGGG
The enzyme responsible for replicating the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Uses an RNA template to add more telomere sequence during replication.
Not active in
There are 5 different DNA polymerases described in prokaryotic cells.
The protein synthesis occurs by means of transcrition (in the nucleus: production of RNA with nitrogenous bases that are complementary to one of the ; thus DNA -> RNA) and translation (in polyribosomes and the both located in the cytoplasm: RNA codes -> specific chains of aminoacids, i.e.
Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic DNA Replication ..
, which modulates "docking" of the ribosome to the rough ER.
This deer is albino, because of a genetic defect in it's pigment pathway
An RNA "
" loop, similar to what happens in Rho-independent termination
Sickle Cell Anemia is due to a point mutation.
How is the structure of DNA related to its function?
How does DNA allow for heritability?
How does DNA allow for traits in an organism?
How do mutations affect DNA structure and function?
Explain all steps of replication, transcription and translation, the enzymes required for each and the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein.
Difference Between Protein Synthesis and DNA Replication…
There are 2 major types of DNA-level mutations:
: One DNA base is replaced by another DNA base.
: DNA bases are inserted or deleted ("in/dels").
Each type of mutation can have different effects, depending on the situation.
The substitution changes a codon to another codon for the same amino acid.
The substitution changes a codon to a codon for a different amino acid.
The substitution changes a codon to a stop codon
The reading frame of the ribosome is altered so that all amino acids downstream from the in/del are altered
The reading frame of the ribosome is altered so that a stop codon is introduced prematurely
The reading frame is restored when indel's occur in multiples of three.
The code was cracked largely by Marshall Nirenberg
Put synthetic RNA into "cell free" E.
Compare and contrast DNA replication and protein synthesis
When a stop codon (
) is encountered, a release factor binds to the
The polypeptide chain is released.
The ribosome disassembles.
tRNA binding at the ribosome is mediated by an "
" loop in the tRNA molecule
Protein Synthesis in Total
Prokaryote & Eukaryote
Since prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, transcription and translation can be coupled.
: simultaneous translation of a transcript (even while that transcript is still being made.
Eukaryotes can not couple transcription and translation.
Eukaryotic DNA replication - Wikipedia
We do know that having multiple exons in a gene allows eukaryotes to make multiple functional proteins from one gene ("
The Genetic Code:
The site of protein synthesis.
The only "non-membrane" bound organelle.
All cells have ribosomes.
Composed of two subunits.
Has three "sites":
: "Aminoacyl"- where amino acids enter the ribosome
: "peptidyl"- where the growing polypeptide is kept.
: "exit"- where empty tRNA molecules leave.
Transfer RNA molecules.
Responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome.
Amino acids are added to tRNA molecules through the action of "
amino-acyl tRNA synthase
A tRNA with the an amino acid attached is said to be "
Triplet code: mRNA is read in units of three bases ("
There are 64 possible codons (for 20 possible amino acids).
The code is redundant and unambiguous.
The code has "
" and "
pig with GFP from a jellyfish
tobacco plant with luciferase from a firefly
How translation happens: