Compare and contrast DNA replication and protein synthesis?

A gene is a contiguous strand of DNA that is used to create a functional RNA or protein.

Compare the end products of DNA replication and protein synthesis

DNA methylation is a postreplicative modification that occurs when a methyl (-CH3) group is added at position 5 of the cytosine pyrimidine ring and “establishes a silent chromatin state by collaborating with proteins that modify nucleosomes.” (Rudolf Jaenisch, 2003)....

Nucleus, DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis #3: RNA and Transcription.3D Animation of DNA to RNA to Protein.

Processes of DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis ..

Information would start to be lost.
"Proof-Reading"
Telomeres:
The ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Consist of a short, repeating DNA sequence

Vertebrate Telomere: TTAGGG
Telomerase:
The enzyme responsible for replicating the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes.

Uses an RNA template to add more telomere sequence during replication.

Not active in
senescent
cells.
There are 5 different DNA polymerases described in prokaryotic cells.

The RNA is further transported outside the nucleus, to the cytoplasm, where it become active in the translation (the actual synthesis of proteins).


The protein synthesis occurs by means of transcrition (in the nucleus: production of RNA with nitrogenous bases that are complementary to one of the ; thus DNA -> RNA) and translation (in polyribosomes and the both located in the cytoplasm: RNA codes -> specific chains of aminoacids, i.e.

The information in the RNA generated can then be used to generate a protein.To make a protein encoded by DNA, the cell uses two steps.


Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic DNA Replication ..

Recruits an
SRP protein
, which modulates "docking" of the ribosome to the rough ER.
This deer is albino, because of a genetic defect in it's pigment pathway
An RNA "
hairpin
" loop, similar to what happens in Rho-independent termination
Sickle Cell Anemia is due to a point mutation.
How is the structure of DNA related to its function?

How does DNA allow for heritability?

How does DNA allow for traits in an organism?

How do mutations affect DNA structure and function?
Explain all steps of replication, transcription and translation, the enzymes required for each and the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein.

Difference Between Protein Synthesis and DNA Replication…

There are 2 major types of DNA-level mutations:

Point mutations
: One DNA base is replaced by another DNA base.
Frame-shift mutations
: DNA bases are inserted or deleted ("in/dels").

Each type of mutation can have different effects, depending on the situation.
Point Mutations
Silent
The substitution changes a codon to another codon for the same amino acid.
Missense:
The substitution changes a codon to a codon for a different amino acid.
Nonsense:
The substitution changes a codon to a stop codon
Frameshift Mutations
Extensive missense
The reading frame of the ribosome is altered so that all amino acids downstream from the in/del are altered
Immediate nonsense
The reading frame of the ribosome is altered so that a stop codon is introduced prematurely
Limited Effect
The reading frame is restored when indel's occur in multiples of three.
PS:
The code was cracked largely by Marshall Nirenberg

Put synthetic RNA into "cell free" E.

Compare and contrast DNA replication and protein synthesis

Termination
When a stop codon (
UAG
,
UAA
, or
UGA
) is encountered, a release factor binds to the
A-site
.

The polypeptide chain is released.

The ribosome disassembles.
tRNA binding at the ribosome is mediated by an "
anti-codon
" loop in the tRNA molecule
tRNA "anti-codon"
Protein Synthesis in Total
Prokaryote & Eukaryote
Translation Specifics
Prokaryotes
Since prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, transcription and translation can be coupled.

Polyribosomes
: simultaneous translation of a transcript (even while that transcript is still being made.
Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes can not couple transcription and translation.

Eukaryotic DNA replication - Wikipedia



We do know that having multiple exons in a gene allows eukaryotes to make multiple functional proteins from one gene ("
alternative splicing
")
RNA
polypeptide
The Genetic Code:
The Ribosome
tRNA
The site of protein synthesis.

The only "non-membrane" bound organelle.

All cells have ribosomes.

Composed of two subunits.

Has three "sites":
A site
: "Aminoacyl"- where amino acids enter the ribosome
P site
: "peptidyl"- where the growing polypeptide is kept.
E site
: "exit"- where empty tRNA molecules leave.
Transfer RNA molecules.

Responsible for bringing amino acids to the ribosome.
Amino acids are added to tRNA molecules through the action of "
amino-acyl tRNA synthase
" enzymes.

A tRNA with the an amino acid attached is said to be "
charged
"
Triplet code: mRNA is read in units of three bases ("
codons
")

There are 64 possible codons (for 20 possible amino acids).

The code is redundant and unambiguous.

The code has "
start
" and "
stop
" punctuation.
pig with GFP from a jellyfish
tobacco plant with luciferase from a firefly
How translation happens:
1.