What is the chemical equation representing the synthesis of aspirin …
From the above equation, it can be seen that the degradation of aspirin in asolution buffered at pH = 7.5 will follow first order kinetics; that is,the reaction will appear to be a first order reaction, dependent only onthe concentration of one reactant; i.e. aspirin.
Balanced chemical equation for synthesis of aspirin
Clinical studies have shown that people with inherited defects in the ability to repair damaged DNA frequently develop cancer and/or developmental abnormalities at an early age (). Such examples provide strong evidence linking accumulation of DNA damage to human disease. Similarly, agents that promote cell proliferation (such as tetradecanoylphorbol acetate) often enhance carcinogenesis. For these compounds, the increased likelihood of neoplastic transformation may be a direct consequence of a decrease in the time available for the cell to carry out adequate DNA repair.
Hydrolysis of the drug entity can be a major factor in the instabilityof solutions. Aspirin, for example, undergoes hydrolysis with the resultantdegradation products being salicylic acid and acetic acid. The rate ofthis reaction is said to be second order, since it is dependent not onlyupon the aspirin concentration, but upon solution pH (i.e. the hydroniumion concentration at solution pH values less than approximately 2.5 orthe concentration of hydroxyl ion at solution pH values greater than approximately7.0). At pH = 7.5, the rate expression for the hydrolysis of aspirin maybe written:
How to Make Aspirin - Acetylsalicylic Acid - ThoughtCo
An experiment is described that is suitable for the early portion of the laboratory in a general chemistry course and integrates organic examples. It is the two-step synthesis of aspirin starting from oil of wintergreen. The mechanism for this synthesis provides examples of three major classes of chemical reactions: hydrolysis, condensation, and proton transfer. To understand the chemistry, the student must be able to recognize the common molecular framework shared by oil of wintergreen, salicylic acid, and aspirin and to identify the -OH and -CO2 sites where chemical changes occur. The experiment differs in three ways from traditional aspirin synthesis experiments for general chemistry. It is designed to be performed early rather than late; it starts from a naturally occurring material and requires two steps rather than one; and it utilizes FTIR spectroscopy to distinguish among oil of wintergreen starting material, salicylic acid intermediate, and aspirin product. The use of FTIR spectroscopy introduces students to a modern analytical technique that is currently used in research involving aspirin.
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The common use of various medications can influence susceptibility to toxic chemicals mainly because many drugs bind to serum proteins and thus influence the transport, distribution or excretion rate of various toxic chemicals, or because many drugs are capable of inducing relevant detoxifying enzymes or depressing their activity (e.g., the cytochrome P450 enzymes), thus affecting the toxicity of chemicals with the same biotransformation pathway. Characteristic for either of the mechanisms is increased urinary excretion of trichloroacetic acid (the metabolite of several chlorinated hydrocarbons) when using salicylate, sulphonamide or phenylbutazone, and an increased hepato-nephrotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride when using phenobarbital. In addition, some medications contain a considerable amount of a potentially toxic chemical, for example, the aluminium-containing antacids or preparations used for therapeutic management of the hyperphosphataemia arising in chronic renal failure.
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Economic factors are specifically related to the volume of materials that must be tested. A plethora of new cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, chemicals and household products is introduced into the market every year. All of these products must be evaluated for their potential toxicity. In addition, there is a backlog of chemicals already in use that have not been adequately tested. The enormous task of obtaining detailed safety information on all of these chemicals using traditional whole animal testing methods would be costly in terms of both money and time, if it could even be accomplished.