Can a water bottle be dangerous?: Warning
To make a long story short, the primary function of ATP synthase in most organisms is ATP synthesis. Hence the name. However, in some cases the reverse reaction, i.e. transmembrane proton pumpingpowered by ATP hydrolysis is more important. A typical example: anaerobic bacteria produce ATP byfermentation, and ATP synthase uses ATP to generate protonmotive force necessary for ion transportand flagella motility.
Many bacteria can live both from fermentation and respiration or photosynthesis. In such case ATP synthasefunctions in both ways.
An important issue is to control ATP-driven proton pumping activity of ATP synthase in order to avoid wasteful ATP hydrolysis under conditions when no protonmotive force can be generated (e.g. leakydamaged membrane, uncoupler present, etc.). In such case ATP hydrolysis becomes a problem,because it can quickly exchaust the intecellular ATP pool. To avoid this situation,all ATP synthases are equipped with regulatory mechanisms that suppress the ATPaseactivity if no protonmotive force is present. The degree of ATP hydrolysis inhibitiondepend on the organism. In plants (in chloroplasts), where it is necessary to preserveATP pool through the whole night, the inhibition is very strong: the enzyme hardly has anyATPase activity. In contrast, in anaerobic bacteria where ATP synhase is the maingenerator of protonmotive force, such inhibition is very weak. Mitochondrial ATP synthase is somewhereinbetween.
Removal of these agents from water can be easier ..
The American Indians who resided in the Utah area near the Great Salt Lake regularly drank small quantities of the inland sea water. They discovered that this practice enhanced the effect of their herbal remedies. It was based on this folk use that Hartly Anderson set up a company to extract the exceptionally pure and concentrated form of sea water and to market it for health purposes. That was over 30 years ago, and many people testify to the therapeutic properties of these mineral rich waters and the beneficial effects when combined with herb’s and other nutrients. The famed Poznan School of medicine in Poland found after years of research that herb’s acted synergistically with minerals and vitamins, providing a superior therapeutic modality, than when minerals are not included
Because writing and reading DNA is still relatively slow, early applications will be archival. But there are plenty of candidates for that, including scientific Big Data, legal and regulatory records, and archives like the UNESCO Memory of the World. Microsoft Research says it is planning to build a proto-commercial DNA storage system within three years. , the global media and entertainment tech company, is funding research in Church’s group at Harvard with archiving in mind; nearly half of all films made before 1951 have been lost because they were stored on celluloid.
How DNA will solve our data storage problem | Cosmos
Since those two seminal studies, the cost has come down significantly, particularly for DNA sequencing. Synthesis still has some catching up to do. Right now it costs 10 cents per letter to synthesise DNA (three if you’re buying in bulk). Twist Bioscience CEO Emily LeProust estimates that will have to fall to 0.001 cents per letter before DNA can realistically compete with magnetic tape for long-term storage. A big infusion of cash and a lucrative market outlook might provide the needed impetus.
Now ‘Smoke on the Water’ is making history again
In the absence of transmembrane pH difference equals the transmembraneelectrical potential difference and can be directly measured by severalexperimental techniques (i.e. permeate ion distribution,potential-sensitive dyes, electrochromic carotenoid bandshift, etc.).Each pH unit of the transmembrane pH gradient corresponds to 59 mVof .
For most biological membranes engaged in ATP synthesis the value lies between 120 and 200mV ( between 11.6 and19.3 kJ mol-1).
The Essential Health Benefits of Sea Water - Harmonik …
So the DNA copy of ‘Smoke on the Water’ will last a long time, but how did the scientists turn a song into a molecule in the first place?” First, the digital music file was translated from a series of 1s and 0s into the letters of the DNA alphabet, the bases A,C, T and G -- for example 00 for A, 01 for C, 10 for T and 11 for G. Then the sequences of letters were assembled into short DNA phrases with indexing information added to keep it all in the right order. Using these coding sequences, the DNA was manufactured letter by letter with chemical reactions, and then stored in a test tube.