Effects of Blue and Red Light on the Rate of Photosynthesis
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Synthesis Specialised Software Development
A facile strategy is reported here for synthesis of Zn-Cu-In-S/ZnS (ZCIS/ZnS) core/shell QDs to address the synthetic issues that the unexpected blue-shift of CuInS2-based nanocrystals. In this strategy, Zn2+ ions are intentionally employed for the synthesis of alloyed ZCIS core QDs before ZnS shell coating, which contributes to the reduced blue-shift in photoluminescence (PL) emission. The experimental results demonstrate this elaborate facile strategy is effective for the reduction of blue-shift during shell growth. Particularly, a hypothesis is proposed and proved for explanation of this effective strategy. Namely, both cation exchange inhibition and ions accumulation are involved during the synthesis of ZCIS/ZnS QDs. Furthermore, the obtained near infrared (NIR) ZCIS/ZnS QDs are transferred into aqueous phase by a polymer coating technique and coupled with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptide (cRGD) peptides. After confirmation of biocompability by cytotoxicity test on normal 3T3 cells, these QDs are injected tail vein into nude mice bearing U87 MG tumor. The result indicates that the signals detected in the tumor region are much more distinguishing injected with ZCIS/ZnS-cRGD QDs than that injected with ZCIS/ZnS QDs.
In summary, a facile approach for synthesis of ZCIS/ZnS core/shell NCs is reported here that (i) the as-prepared primary ZCIS alloyed NCs display single PL peaks in the range of 590-815 nm and (ii) pronounced blue-shift does not happen throughout ZnS shell growth. These improvements are really expected and helpful for synthesis of ZCIS/ZnS NCs used for NIR fluorescence imaging. Particularly, a corresponding hypothesis is also put forward to explain this inhibitory blue-shift. It's proposed that the reduced blue-shift should be profited from the inhibited cation exchange derived from aforehand added Zn2+ ions and the following size increase arising from ions accumulation. Furthermore, the as-prepared ZCIS/ZnS QDs is successfully transferred into aqueous phase. After the approval of biocompatibility by cytotoxicity test, the obtained QDs are conjugated with cRGD peptides for tumor targeted imaging.