Biosynthesis of Lipids and Hydrocarbons in Algae | …
purified a phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) from egg yolk onan alumina column ().
Baer E described the synthesis of phosphatidic acid by treatment ofdiacylglycerol with diphenylchlorophosphate and removal of the phenyl group bycatalytic reduction ().
Hofman K et al.
Biosynthesis of Membrane Lipids.
described for the first time the synthesis of mixed acidtriglycerides ().
Description of the specific presence of fatty acids in the depot fats ofruminants in contrast to their absence in non-ruminants ().
The "phospholipid effect" discovered in 1953 is now attributed to aphosphoinositide in connection with phosphatidic acid metabolism(phosphatidylinositol cycle) ().
Barber JM et al.
determined in vivo for the first time metabolism ofphospholipids in which the phosphate group was labeled with 32P and the fattyacid moiety with 14C ().
23/12/2017 · Synthesis of Lipids: Biochemistry ..
Synthesis of phospholipids and sphingolipids
Glycerol is the starting material in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. CDP-diacylglycerol is the activated intermediate of this pathway. Sphingolipids are synthesized from palmitoyl CoA and serine, initially to form ceramide. Sphingomyelins and glycolipids are synthesized from ceramide. Various sphingolipids storage diseases are resulted due to hereditary absence of hydrolytic enzymes.
Biosynthesis of Lipids | SpringerLink
Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins. Fatty acids are activated, transported across mitochondrial membrane with the help of carnitine transporter. β -oxidation of saturated fatty acids takes place in the mitochondrial matrix. Similarly oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids also take place with additional reactions. Ketone bodies are formed in the liver but they are utilized by extra hepatic tissues. In uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and starvation, excessive ketone bodies are formed, leading to ketosis. Fatty acid biosynthesis takes place in the cytosol of cells. Fat gets deposited in the adipose tissue. Acetyl Coenzyme A is the precursor of fatty acid synthesis as well as cholesterol biosynthesis. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to deposition of cholesterol plaques in the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are synthesized from twenty carbon unsaturated fatty acids. Phosphatidic acid is an important intermediate in the synthesis of glycerophospholipids. In sphingolipids, sphingosine is present as an alcohol.
Synthesis and Biosynthetic Trafficking of Membrane Lipids
80% of endogenous cholesterol is formed in the liver. Enzymes involved in the synthesis are partly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and partly in the cytoplasm. Acetyl CoA is the precursor. HMG CoA, mevalonate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, squalene are some of the important intermediate compounds formed during cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol is transported in lipoprotein complexes. Elevation of lipids in blood leads to the deposition of cholesterol on the arterial walls leading to atherosclerosis.
Biosynthesis of Lipids and Steroids by Jenny Bobo on …
Lipid digestion and absorption
Lipids play an important role in cell structure and metabolism. TAGs are the major storage form of energy. Cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and precursor of steroid hormones. Lipid digestion occurs at lipid water interfaces since TAG is insoluble in water and digestive enzymes are water soluble. Lipids are digested and absorbed with the help of bile salts. Products of lipid digestion aggregate to form mixed micelles and are absorbed into the small intestine. Lipids are transported in the form of lipoproteins.