Protecting Groups for Improved Control of Indigo Biosynthesis

(NDO), we have achieved an overall process for the production of indigo dye from glucose.

Indigo dye on weight of yarn ranged ..

The world needs to dye 3 billion pairs of jeans with indigo annually. Currently, industrial dyeing uses an extensive process, first producing indigo from the petroleum product, benzene, and then solubilizing indigo to allow it to adhere to cloth. The chemicals used in the process include strong acids, strong bases, and the reducing agent sodium dithionite. The table shown below shows the NFPA diamonds for each chemical highlighting their reactivity and hazards. Given previous iGEM interest in indigo by teams , , and , as well as the potential for a greener, biosynthetic alternative to denim dyeing, we started our project – Project Blue Genes.

Expression of naphthalene oxidation genes in Escherichia coli results in the biosynthesis of indigo

sustainability in indigo dyeing and the manufacture of ..

Upon beginning our search for biosynthetic routes for dyeing jeans, we learned that certain species of plants produce indigo under stressed conditions. Below is polygonum tinctorium, an indigo producing plant. In the healthy, green part of the leaf, this plant naturally sequesters a toxic compound produced in plants called indole into a glucosylated form called indican. Indican is soluble and harmlessly stored in the vacuoles of plant cells. However, the plant's behavior changes when it is under stress. The leaf that is turning blue has been sprayed with ethanol, and parts of the plant may have begun to degrade. Though the plant is still producing indican in the vacuoles, a glucosidase enzyme previously isolated away from the indican gains access due to the failure of compartmentalization in the cell, and cleaves the glucose ring off of indican. This produces an unstable intermediate called indoxyl which quickly oxidizes and dimerizes to indigo, turning the leaf blue.

process that mimics natural biosynthesis of indigo.

We aim to establish a pathway in to use soluble indican to dye jeans. Our pathway begins with indole, a toxic intermediate generated in as well as plants, and uses a heterologously expressed FMO enzyme to produce indoxyl which would then be taken to indican using a GT or glucosyltransferase enzyme. After using indican to coat cloth as desired, a B-glucosidase enzyme, or GLU, would cleave the sugar from indican and generating indoxyl which oxidizes to blue indigo.

“Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated naphthalene-degrading strain Pseudomonas sp


The world needs to dye 3 billion pairs of jeans with indigo annually.

Indigo has been used as a natural dye for thousands of years. An extract from the shrub , it is found throughout tropical regions across the world and is a predominant color amongst the backdrop of Morocco.

Kwon-Young Choi, Biosynthesis of indigo in Escherichia ..

There are various methods for preparing your own indigo dye, and great online resources like can help you get started. They have indigo kits and also pre-reduced indigo crystals that you mix with soda ash and .

Biosynthesis of indigo dye by newly isolated ..

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A History Of Indigo Dye In Japan In 1 Minute

The biosynthesis of indigo is not economical compared to chemical synthesis. The costs could be brought down by selecting cheaper substrates as substrate costs constitute more than production costs of any biotechnological product. Our future studies are aimed towards cloning indigo producing gene from SCV1 into so as to produce indigo from tryptophan rich cheaper substrates so as to cut down the production costs. Tryptophan could be used for the biosynthetic production of indole which is the substrate for indigo production.

The History of Indigo Dyeing and How It Changed the World

Dip wrapped garment into indigo dye. Gently massage the fabric right underneath the surface of the dye bath, make sure you don’t add too much oxygen (no slushing around).