" Biosynthesis of storage fat in oil crops - today and tomorrow "

Some rare polyenoic fatty acids may have also a trans double bond.

It is said an essential fatty acid for animals.

= 29°C) was found in .

It has been reported that linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (0.45-2.7g/100g fresh insect, 9-21% of total FA) in insect body ().

This fatty acid is available from some seed oils from several plant families.

About 500 different fatty acids are listed.

Whereas human spermatozoa contain predominantly di-, tri- and tetraenoic fatty acids with up to 32 carbon atoms, boar, ram and bull spermatozoa contain pentaenoic and/or hexaenoic acids with up to 34 carbon atoms ().
Several other fatty acids were described in mammals () and n-6 fatty acids with up to 6 double bonds and 34 carbon atoms have been determined in sphingomyelin and ceramides extracted from the head of mammalian spermatozoa (Bull, ram) ().

The mostly represented fatty acids are 27:4 and 29:4n-6.
Polyenoic n-6 fatty acids with carbon chain lengths from 26 to 38 have been detected in abnormal amounts in brain of patients with the rare inherited disorder, Zellweger syndrome ().


All fatty acids from C8 to C28 have been found in sediments ().

A number of studies have also shown an inverse association between the concentrations of these compounds in human plasma phospholipids or erythrocytes and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
It was proposed a possible involvement in metabolic regulation from the assumption that there is a link between 15:0 and 17:0 and the metabolism of other short-chain, medium-chain, and longer-chain odd-chain fatty acids (., Adv Nutr 2016, 7, 730).

Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription.

The question of the possibility of these plant fatty acids to be the precursors of the long-chain n-3 compounds (EPA and DHA) in transgenic plants has been examined (, ). Recent progress demonstrates the feasibility of using transgenic plants to synthesize long-cain polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The main source of n-3 fatty acids is fish oil but the market prices of that product are increasing significantly.

As an example, 12 of these fatty acids and a novel one (

Some of the microorganisms (phototrophic or heterotrophic) reported to produce edible oil that contains omega-3 fatty acids are from the genus , and .

The biosynthesis of fatty acids.

It has been shown that the same relationship can be established with saturated fatty acids (15:0, 17:0, 20:0) acylating lysophosphatidylcholine (., Am J Clin Nutr 2014, 99, 46).

Regulation of fatty acid synthesis in isolated hepatocytes.

An overview of advances in the production of single cell oils rich in n-3 fatty acids may be consulted ().
Besides , the plant (Lamiaceae), originated from the Caucasus and Middle East regions produces a seed oil rich in linolenic acid (67-74%).

Regulation of fatty acid synthase gene transcription.

These fatty acids not only affect the function of leukocytes but can also induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils.
ß-Hydroxy ß-methylbutyric acid is a naturally produced substance in humans (a metabolite of leucine) that is currently used used as dietary supplement to reduce the loss of lean body mass (., Nutr Metab 2008;5:1) and as an ingredient in some medical food products.