Initiation and elongation in synthesis of chondroitin sulfate

Role of chondroitin-4-sulfate in pregnancy-associated malaria

Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate | …

Figure 2. Model of the function of the SQV proteins in the biosynthesis of heparan and chondroitin chains. (UDP-glucose dehydrogenase) synthesizes UDP-glucuronic acid () and catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-xylose by decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid (). transports UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine into the Golgi lumen (). and encode the xylosyltransferase, galactosyltransferase I, galactosyltransferase II and glucuronyltransferase I, respectively, involved in the synthesis of the common “core tetrasaccharide” linkage region (; ; ). is required for the polymerization of chondroitin chains (; ). Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: Nature 423, 439–443, copyright (2003).

T1 - Inhibition of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of Chondroitin Sulfate - ResearchGate

AB - Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis requires numerous biosynthetic enzymes and activated sulfate and sugar donors. Although the sequence of biosynthetic events is resolved using reconstituted systems, little is known about the emergence of cell-specific GAG chains (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) with distinct sulfation patterns. We have utilized a library of click-xylosides that have various aglycones to decipher the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis in a cellular system. Earlier studies have shown that both the concentration of the primers and the structure of the aglycone moieties can affect the composition of the newly synthesized GAG chains. However, it is largely unknown whether structural features of aglycone affect the extent of sulfation, sulfation pattern, disaccharide composition, and chain length of GAG chains. In this study, we show that aglycones can switch not only the type of GAG chains, but also their fine structures. Our findings provide suggestive evidence for the presence of GAGOSOMES that have different combinations of enzymes and their isoforms regulating the synthesis of cell-specific combinatorial structures. We surmise that click-xylosides are differentially recognized by the GAGOSOMES to generate distinct GAG structures as observed in this study. These novel click-xylosides offer new avenues to profile the cell-specific GAG chains, elucidate the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis, and to decipher the biological actions of GAG chains in model organisms.

Peak I proteoglycan has a high buoyant density and contains chondroitin sulfate chains of average Mr = 20,000.

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans are involved in a wide variety of developmental and pathophysiological functions. Similar to a gene knockout, the ability to inhibit GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the function of endogenous GAG chains. However, ubiquitously and irreversibly knocking out all GAG biosynthesis would cause multiple effects making it difficult to attribute a specific biological role to a specific GAG structure in spatiotemporal manner. Reversible and selective inhibition of GAG biosynthesis would allow us to examine the importance of endogenous GAGs to specific cellular, tissue, or organ systems. In this chapter, we describe the chemical synthesis and biological evaluation of 4-deoxy-4-fluoro-xylosides as selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis. Key words Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, 4-Deoxy-4-fluoro-xylosides, Proteoglycan inhibitors, Heparan sulfate, Chondroitin sulfate, Dermatan sulfate.

T1 - Synthesis of selective inhibitors of heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis


Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate supplementation …

The sulfated oligosaccharide products were digested wih chondroitinase and the digestion products were analyzed to determine the individual rates of 4- and 6-sulfation.

An inhibitor of chondroitin sulfate ..

An analysis of the chondroitinase ABC and/or the chondroitinase AC digestion products from the sulfated chondroitin oligosaccharides was used to determine the rates of 4- and 6-sulfation at the nonreducing terminal, internal, and reducing terminal regions of the oligosaccharides.

glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate reduce risk of ..

N2 - Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis requires numerous biosynthetic enzymes and activated sulfate and sugar donors. Although the sequence of biosynthetic events is resolved using reconstituted systems, little is known about the emergence of cell-specific GAG chains (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate) with distinct sulfation patterns. We have utilized a library of click-xylosides that have various aglycones to decipher the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis in a cellular system. Earlier studies have shown that both the concentration of the primers and the structure of the aglycone moieties can affect the composition of the newly synthesized GAG chains. However, it is largely unknown whether structural features of aglycone affect the extent of sulfation, sulfation pattern, disaccharide composition, and chain length of GAG chains. In this study, we show that aglycones can switch not only the type of GAG chains, but also their fine structures. Our findings provide suggestive evidence for the presence of GAGOSOMES that have different combinations of enzymes and their isoforms regulating the synthesis of cell-specific combinatorial structures. We surmise that click-xylosides are differentially recognized by the GAGOSOMES to generate distinct GAG structures as observed in this study. These novel click-xylosides offer new avenues to profile the cell-specific GAG chains, elucidate the mechanism of GAG biosynthesis, and to decipher the biological actions of GAG chains in model organisms.

Glycosaminoglycans and Proteoglycans | Sigma-Aldrich

This study investigates the effect of a new combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate, methylsulfonylmethane, Harpagophytum procumbens root extract (standardized to 3% harpagoside) and bromelain extract on formalin-induced damage to cartilage tissue in the rat knee joint and evaluates this combination in comparison with another combination of glucosamine hydrochloride, chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane.